<html><head> <meta name="Generator" content="None"> <title>>=4@0H8= .. - C@A ;5:F89 "A=>2K !"!% 7=0=89 "5<0 2" </title> </head> <body bgcolor="#EEEEDD" background="../../images/bpaper.gif" text="#000000" link="#0000AA" vlink="#AA0000" alink="#8800AA"> <center> <p><font size="4">[ <a href="index.htm">0 3;02=CN AB@0=8FC</a> ] [ <a href="01.htm">"5<0 1</a> ]</font></p> <p><table width="705" cellpadding="20" cellspacing="4" bgcolor="#EECC99" background="../../images/bkgr17.jpg" border="5"><tr><td align="center" valign="middle"> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto; line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Tahoma","sans-serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:#333333;mso-fareast-language: RU'> <b>"5<0 2. 1I85 ?@54AB02;5=8O > AB@C:BC@5 <8@>740=8O, > <5AB5 G5;>25:0 2 =Q<. >>AD5@0 8 =0CG=K9 ?>4E>4 2 2>?@>A0E <8@>?>=8<0=8O.</b> >=OB85 > ?>=OB8OE, :@C3>7>@5 8 <8@>?>=8<0=88.  <5AB5 =>>AD5@K 2 A>2@5<5==>9 =0CG=>9 :0@B8=5 <8@0. =B>;>38G5A:0O <>45;L ?>AB@>5=8O A5;5==>9. </b></font></p></td> </tr></table></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto; line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Tahoma","sans-serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:#333333;mso-fareast-language: RU'><b>!>45@60=85 ;5:F88</b></font></p> <p><img src="../../images/bar61.gif" height="7" width="365" border="0"></p> <p><p><font size="4"> <b><i>@C3>7>@ 8 <8@>?>=8<0=85</i></b></span> </p> </center><blockquote> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto; line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Tahoma","sans-serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:#333333;mso-fareast-language: RU'> <dd># ?528FK ;;K C30G52>9 2 >4=>9 87 ?5A5= 5ABL B0:85 A;>20 &laquo;-B>B <8@ ?@84C<0= =5 =0<8, MB>B <8@ ?@84C<0= =5 <=>9...&raquo;. -B8 A;>20 4>2>;L=> B>G=> ?5@540NB ACBL ?>4E>40 : 2>?@>A0< <8@>?>=8<0=8O - <8@ =C6=> =5 2K4C<K20BL, 53> =04> =0CG=> 87CG0BL.  2>B A;>6=>AB8 87CG5=8O <8@0 =5 2A5< >48=0:>2> 4>ABC?=K 2 A8;C =5>48=0:>2>9 >1@07>20==>AB8, ?@>A25IQ==>AB8 8=48284>2.  MB>9 A2O78 ;L15@B -9=HB59= 1K; 2K=C645= :0:-B> 70<5B8BL: &laquo;5A:>=5G=K ;8HL A5;5==0O 8 3;C?>ABL G5;>25G5A:0O, ?@8 MB>< >B=>A8B5;L=> 15A:>=5G=>AB8 ?5@2>9 87 =8E C <5=O 8<5NBAO A><=5=8O&raquo;. <br> <dd> B0:, >4=8< 87 >A=>2>?>;030NI8E 0A?5:B>2 A25BA:>3> 7=0=8O, 0 7=0G8B, 8 <i>A>7=0=8O</i> 2 F5;><, O2;ONBAO ?@54AB02;5=8O > 2=5H=5< <8@5, B.5. A>3;0A=> D>@<C;8@>2:5 0=B0 - <i>&laquo;72Q74=>5 =51> =04> <=>9&raquo;</i>. =K<8 A;>20<8, MB> 7=0=8O > <b><i><8@>740=88</i></b> - <8@>?>=8<0=85. ;8, :0: 3>2>@8; 0=3;89A:89 CG5=K9-D878: !B5D5= %>:8=3: &laquo;0H0 F5;L - ?>;=>5 ?>=8<0=85 A>1KB89, ?@>8AE>4OI8E 2>:@C3 =0A, 8 =0H53> A>1AB25==>3> ACI5AB2>20=8O&raquo;. <br> <dd> :@C60NI89 =0A <8@ 70304>G5= 8 @07=>>1@075=. ;O :>3>-B> >= 25;8:, 4;O :>3>-B> <0;, 4;O :>3>-B> ?@>AB, 4;O :>3>-B> A;>65=, 4;O :>3>-B> @04>AB5= 8 A25B5;, 4;O :>3>-B> =0?>;=5= 3>@5< 8 AB@040=8O<8. A5 MB> 7028A8B >B A?>A>1=>AB59 :064>3> G5;>25:0 53> 2>A?@8=8<0BL, ?>=8<0BL, >A>7=020BL, C<5BL ACI5AB2>20BL, 25@=55, 68BL 2 =<span>Q<. !?>A>1=>AB8 MB8 AC3C1> 8=48284C0;L=K, B.5. ?@8ACI8 B>;L:> 40==><C :>=:@5B=><C G5;>25:C-8=48284C 8 C @07=KE ;N459 8<5NB 4>2>;L=> ACI5AB25==K5 @07;8G8O. <br> <dd>  B> 65 2@5<O =0 ?@>BO65=88 BKAOG5;5B89 A?>A>1=>AB8 2>A?@8=8<0BL, ?>AB830BL <8@ @072820NBAO 8 C 2A53> G5;>25G5AB20 2 F5;><. -B8 >1I85 A?>A>1=>AB8 A:;04K20NBAO 87 8=48284C0;L=KE A?>A>1=>AB59 A0<>9 ?@>3@5AA82=>9, =081>;55 @0728B>9 G0AB8 :064>3> ?>:>;5=8O G5;>25G5AB20. 4=0:> MB8 A?>A>1=>AB8 =5 >AB0NBAO =587<5==K<8. =8 @072820NBAO 2> 2@5<5=8, 2AQ 1>;55 A>25@H5=AB2COAL >B 3>40 : 3>4C, >B ?>:>;5=8O : ?>:>;5=8N, >15A?5G820O B0:8< ?CBQ< ?@>3@5AA 2A53> G5;>25G5AB20. #65 ;0B>= 2,5 BKA. ;5B =0704 2>A?@8=8<0; <8@ :0: 1>65AB25==K9 ?>@O4>:, @0725@=CBK9 2KAH8< @07C<>< &laquo;?@5:@0A=K9 AB@>9 25I59&raquo;. = >B=>A8; MB> 8 : C@>2=N A>F8C<0, 8 : :>A<>AC =0 <0:@>C@>2=5. <br> <dd>  =0AB>OI55 2@5<O >1I5G5;>25G5A:>5 2>A?@8OB85 >:@C60NI53> =0A <8@0 4>AB83;> 1>;LH>9, =5254><>9 @0=55 H8@>BK 8 3;C18=K 53> ?>7=0=8O. '5;>25G5A:85 8=B5@5AK, ?>4:@5?;O5<K5 =>259H8<8 B5E=8G5A:8<8 2>7<>6=>ABO<8, 2KH;8, A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, 2 @50;L=K9 <0:@>:>A<>A, 2 ?@>AB@0=AB2> >:>;>75<=>9 A5;5==>9, A 4@C3>9, C3;C18;8AL 2 <8:@>:>A<>A, 2 >1;0ABL ?@>F5AA>2, ?@>B5:0NI8E 2 >@30=0E >@30=87<>2, 2 682>9 :;5B:5, 2 35=0E, 2 <0:@>- 8 ?@>AB> <>;5:C;0E, 0B><0E, 2 AC10B><=KE G0AB8F0E. <br> <dd>4=0:> 8 A59G0A ?>-?@56=5<C >B45;L=K5 8=48284K 284OB 8 2>A?@8=8<0NB >:@C60NI89 8E <8@ ?>-@07=><C 2 A8;C =5>48=0:>2>AB8 8E 7=0=89, 0 7=0G8B, 8 8E 8=48284C0;L=>3> A>7=0=8O, 2A;54AB285 G53> 8 682CB 2A5 ;N48 ?>-@07=><C. # :064>3> 8=482840 A2>O AD5@0 >:@C60NI53> <8@0: :B>-B> 2848B 53> F5;>AB=K< 8 1573@0=8G=K< 2 @0<:0E @072820NI59AO A5;5==>9, 0 4;O :>3>-B> >= >3@0=8G8205BAO @0<:0<8 A2>59 :20@B8@K, @01>BK, 8;8, GB> B>65 1K205B, BN@5<=>9 :0<5@K, ;81> 2>>1I5 8A:065==>3> A>1AB25==>3> <8@>>ICI5=8O. A;54AB285 MB>3> C :064>3> G5;>25:0 A:;04K205BAO A2>O A?5F8D8G=0O B>;L:> 4;O =53> AD5@0 2>A?@8OB8O, ?>AB>O==>3> 2=8<0=8O, ?@8;>65=8O C<5=8O A>7840BL 8;8 @07@CH0BL, 2K@065=8O 8=B5@5A>2 8;8 157@07;8G8O. <br> <dd> @0D8G5A:8 MB> <>6=> 87>1@078BL ?>A@54AB2>< A2>53> @>40 AD5@<span> <0:@>:>A<>A0, >:@C60NI8E G5;>25:0 8 8<5NI8E A;54CNI89 >E20B 2=8<0=8O, C<5=8O 8 8=B5@5A>2: <br> <dd>b>/</b> (M3>) 8 2AQ, GB> A =8< A2O70=> - 74>@>2L5, >1@07 687=8, 7=0=8O, C<5=8O, :C;LBC@0, <0=5@K ?>2545=8O, A8AB5<0 ?8B0=8O, A8AB5<0 F5==>AB59, ;8G=K5 =0:;>==>AB8, 2:CAK, GC2AB20, A?>A>1=>AB8 8 =54>AB0B:8, 2=CB@5==89 <8@, ?>445@60=85 2 =>@<5 A2>53> B5;0 8 A>7=0=8O, A0<>A>25@H5=AB2>20=85 8 B.4. <br> <dd> ><, A5<LO 8 2AQ, GB> A =8<8 A2O70=> - @>48B5;8, AC?@C3, >1CAB@>9AB2> 4><0, :20@B8@K, 45B8, 8E 2>A?8B0=85, >1@07>20=85 8 >1CG5=85, >3>@>4, 4><0H=85 682>B=K5, CNB, G8AB>B0, B5;5287>@K, B5;5D>=K, 4@C30O 4><0H=OO >@3B5E=8:0, 30@06, A8AB5<0 ?>445@60=8O 2 ?>@O4:5, CE>40 70 =5?>A@54AB25==K< >:@C65=85< 8 53> A>25@H5=AB2>20=85 8 B.4. <br> <dd><b> 01>B0, A;C610</b> 8 2AQ, GB> A =59 A2O70=> - ?@>D5AA8O, 4>;6=>ABL, :018=5B, AB0=>:, :20;8D8:0F8O, >B=>H5=85 : A;C651=K< >1O70==>ABO<, ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=K5 8=B5@5AK, 4>AB865=8O 8 >B:@KB8O 2 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>9 AD5@5, ?>2KH5=85 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>3> C@>2=O 7=0=89, :0@L5@0, :><0=48@>2:8, >B=>H5=8O A @C:>2>4AB2><, A ?>4G8=5==K<8 8 B.4., 0 B0:65 <b>C2;5G5=8O</b> (E>118). <br> <dd><b>>@>4, <5AB=>ABL</b> 8 2AQ, GB> A =8<8 A2O70=> - C;8FK, 4><0, ?0@:8, H:>;K, <03078=K, A8AB5<0 ?@02>- 8 >E@0=K ?>@O4:0, ?@C4, D>=B0=K, A:25@K, 8E C1@0==>ABL 8 CE>65==>ABL, 3>@>4A:85 2;0AB8, A=0165=85 ?@>4C:B0<8, B5?;><, 2>4>9, 307><, >1I5AB25==K9 B@0=A?>@B, B5;5- 8 @048>25I0=85, B50B@K, :8=>B50B@K, 1>;L=8FK, 10=8, 15=7>:>;>=:8, >1I5AB25==>5 A0<>C?@02;5=85, :@8<8=>35==>ABL, M:>;>38O, 8 B.4., 0 B0:65 AD5@K <b>:C;LBC@K</b>, 2:;NG0O B50B@, :8=>, <C7K:C, 682>?8AL, A:C;L?BC@C 8 B.?., 8 ?@8:;04=>9<b> =0C:8</b> (B.5. =0CG=K5 >B:@KB8O, :>B>@K5 A;54C5B 7=0BL 2A5<). <br> <dd><b>!B@0=0, 3>AC40@AB2></b> 8 2AQ, GB> A =8< A2O70=> - ?>;8B8G5A:89 AB@>9, A8AB5<0 C?@02;5=8O, 55 MDD5:B82=>ABL, ?5@A>=0;88 2> 2;0AB8, :0:85 70:>=K, =0;>38, F5;8, 157>?0A=>ABL, 845>;>38O, A8AB5<0 F5==>AB59, A8AB5<0 >1@07>20=8O 8 ?@>A25I5=8O, 35>?>;8B8G5A:85 CAB0=>2:8, ?@>3@0<<0 =0F8>=0;L=>3> @0728B8O, C@>25=L >1I5AB25==>3> A>7=0=8O 8 B.?. <br> <dd><b>>=B8=5=B, G0ABL A25B0</b> 8 2AQ, GB> A =8<8 A2O70=> - 1;8609H85 AB@0=K-A>A548, 3@0=8G0I85 A 40==>9 AB@0=>9, C@>25=L 8E @0728B8O 8 AB5?5=L @0728B>AB8 >1I5AB25==>3> A>7=0=8O, AB5?5=L 8E 4@C65AB25==>AB8 8/8;8 2@06451=>AB8, ?5@A?5:B82K A>B@C4=8G5AB20, F5;5A>>1@07=>ABL 2708<=>3> A1;865=8O/>B40;5=8O. <br> <dd><b>;0=5B0 5<;O</b> 8 2AQ, GB> A =59 A2O70=> - ?>3>40, >7>=>2K5 4K@K, <03=8B=K5 1C@8, B09DC=K, C<5=LH5=85 70?0A>2 ?@5A=>9 2>4K, =5DB8 8 3070, ?@>8AE>645=85 @0AB8B5;L=>3> 8 682>B=>3> <8@0, B5=45=F88 2 @0728B88 =K=5 682CI53> ?>:>;5=8O G5;>25G5AB20, C25;8G5=85 =0@>4>=0A5;5=8O, 53> A>AB02, 87<5=5=8O :;8<0B0, >?0A=>ABL O45@=>3> 8;8 M:>;>38G5A:>3> A0<>C=8GB>65=8O, 3;>10;L=>5 703@O7=5=85 <>@A:8E 10AA59=>2, 0B<>AD5@K 8 ACH8 8 B.4. <br> <dd><b>!>;=5G=0O A8AB5<0, A5;5==0O </b>8 2AQ, GB> A =8<8 A2O70=> - 8AB>@8O 2>7=8:=>25=8O, 2>7<>6=K5 >?0A=>AB8 87 :>A<>A0 (0AB5@>84K, :><5BK, 2@54=>5 4;O G5;>25:0 87;CG5=85), ?5@A?5:B82K 53> >A2>5=8O, @0AA5;5=8O G5;>25G5AB20 70 @0<:8 A>1AB25==>9 ?;0=5BK, ?>8A: :>=B0:B>2 A 2=575<=K<8 F828;870F8O<8 8 B.4. <br> <dd><b>8@</b> 8 2AQ, GB> A =8< A2O70=> - 2A5<8@=K5 70:>=K @0728B8O <0B5@80;L=>3> 8@0 (42865=85 2> <i>2@5<5=8-:0G5AB25-?@>AB@0=AB25</i>), >A>15==>AB8 1KB8O, 25@A88 70@>645=8O 2A5;5==KE, ?@8@>40 <KH;5=8O, AB@C:BC@0 A>7=0=8O 8 ?@545;L=K5 A?>A>1=>AB8 G5;>25G5A:>3> @07C<0 ?>7=020BL =0ACI=>5, 25G=>5 8 15A:>=5G=>5, B2>@8BL =>2>5. <br> <dd>"0:8< >1@07><, 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B AD5@ 2=8<0=8O, C<5=8O 8 8=B5@5A>2, :C40 ?@>=8:05B 8 :0:85 70E20BK205B 8=48284C0;L=K9 <5=B0;8B5B G5;>25:0, 2A5 ;N48 45;OBAO =0 8=48284>2 A C7:8< 8 A H8@>:8< <0:@>:>A<8G5A:8<8 :@C3>7>@0<8: </p> </blockquote><center> <p><table cellpadding="4" cellspacing="0" border="0"><tr> <td align="center" valign="bottom"><img src="../../images/outls2a.gif" height="77" width="201" border="0"></td> <td align="center" valign="bottom"><img src="../../images/outls7a.gif" height="157" width="361" border="0"></td> </tr><tr> <td align="center">#7:89 <0:@>:@C3>7>@</td> <td align="center">(8@>:89 <0:@>:@C3>7>@</td> </tr></table></p> </center><blockquote> <p><dd> A;8 <0:@>:>A<8G5A:89 :@C3>7>@ G5;>25:0 >3@0=8G5= ;8HL ?5@2>9 AD5@>9 - >= &laquo;<span><b>M3>8AB</b>&raquo;, 5A;8 2B>@>9 - >= &laquo;<b>>1K20B5;L</b>&raquo;, 5A;8 B@5BL59 - >= &laquo;<b>:0@L5@8AB</b>&raquo;. 0;8G85 8=B5@5A>2 2 G5B25@B>9 AD5@5 405B 5<C &laquo;720=85&raquo; <b>>1I5AB25==8:0, :C;LBC@=>3> G5;>25:0</b>, ?OB>9 - <b>3@0640=8=0</b>, H5AB>9 - <b>8=B5@=0F8>=0;8AB0</b>, A54L<>9 - <b>:>A<>?>;8B0, &laquo;75;Q=>3>&raquo;</b>, 2>AL<>9 - <b>0AB@>D878:0</b>, 452OB>9 - <b>D8;>A>D0</b>. <br> <dd>> AD5@K 8=B5@5A>2 G5;>25:0 =5 >3@0=8G820NBAO B>;L:>  :>A<>A><, 53> 2=8<0=85 ?@>AB8@05BAO 8 2  :>A<>A. @0D8G5A:8 MB> B0:65 <>6=> 87>1@078BL AD5@0<8 C65 B5?5@L <8:@>:>A<>A0, >:@C60NI8<8 G5;>25:0, :>B>@K5 >E20BK20NB A;54CNI85 AB@C:BC@K <0B5@80;L=KE >1@07>20=89: <br> <dd><b>@54<5BK 8 >1J5:BK <0:@>:>A<>A0</b> 8 2AQ, GB> A =8<8 A2O70=> - ;N48, 740=8O, 02B><>18;8, 682>B=K5, @0AB5=8O, ?@54<5BK ;8G=>3> 8 ?@>872>4AB25==>3> ?>;L7>20=8O, B.5. =0H 5654=52=K9 >1K45==K9 <8@; <br> <dd><b>!B@C:BC@=K5 :><?>=5=BK ?@54<5B>2, >1J5:B>2 </b>8 2AQ, GB> A =8<8 A2O70=> - >@30=K, 45B0;8, G0AB8 (70?G0AB8), M;5<5=BK AB@C:BC@, 8AB>G=8:8 M=5@388 8 ?8B0=8O, AE5<K 8 :0@BK, 8 B.4.; <br> <dd><b>0:@>E8<8G5A:85 :><?>=5=BK, </b>?@8:;04=0O E8<8O 8 2A5 ?@>F5AAK, A =8<8 A2O70==K5 - ?8I520@5=85, 18>E8<8O, 28@CA>;>38O, A04>2>->3>@>4=K5 7=0=8O, ?@>F5AAK A6830=8O 8 A3>@0=8O, >:8A;5=8O 8 :@0H5=8O, G8AB:8 8 3;065=8O, 8 B.?.; <br> <dd> !B@>5=85 <0B5@88 =0<b> E8<8G5A:>< </b>C@>2=5; <br> <dd> !B@>5=85 <0B5@88 =0<span><b> D878G5A:>< </b>C@>2=5; <br> <dd> !B@>5=85 <0B5@88 =0<b> AC10B><=>< </b>C@>2=5; <br> <dd> !B@>5=85 <0B5@88 =0<b> AC1O45@=>< </b>C@>2=5; <br> <dd> !B@>5=85 <0B5@88 =0<span><b> AC1:20@:>2>< </b>C@>2=5; <br> <dd>  B.4. 23;C1L <0B5@88 (MD8@, 20:CC<, 28@BC0;L=K5 G0AB8FK, B>@A8>==K5 ?>;O 8 B.?.). <br> <dd>  7028A8<>AB8 >B AD5@ 2=8<0=8O, 7=0=89 8 8=B5@5A>2, :C40 ?@>=8:05B 8 :0:85 70E20BK205B 8=48284C0;L=K9 <5=B0;8B5B G5;>25:0, 2A5 ;N48 45;OBAO B0:65 8 =0 8=48284>2 A C7:8< 8 A H8@>:8< <8:@>:>A<8G5A:8<8 :@C3>7>@0<8: </p> </blockquote><center> <p><table cellpadding="4" cellspacing="0" border="0"><tr> <td align="center" valign="top"><img src="../../images/outls2b.gif" height="129" width="201" border="0"></td> <td align="center" valign="top"><img src="../../images/outls7b.gif" height="209" width="361" border="0"></td> </tr><tr> <td align="center">#7:89 <8:@>:@C3>7>@</td> <td align="center">(8@>:89 <8:@>:@C3>7>@</td> </tr></table></p> </center><blockquote> <p> <dd>B0:, A =5:>B>@KE ?>@ >1I5G5;>25G5A:>5 2>A?@8OB85 <8@0 4>AB83;> B>9 AB0488 53> ?>=8<0=8O, :>340 MB>B 70304>G=K9 <8@ >B45;8;AO, =0:>=5F, >B @072820NI53>AO 2=CB@5==53> <8@0 G5;>25:0 8 ?@52@0B8;AO 2 ACI5AB2CNICN =57028A8<> >B A>7=0=8O >1J5:B82=CN @50;L=>ABL, 2 <b><i>1KB85</i></b>. > 5A;8 >:@C60NI89 =0A <8@ 2 F5;>< 8 AB0; =57028A8<K< >B A>7=0=8O G5;>25:0 (:0:8< >=, 2?@>G5<, 8 O2;O5BAO 2A5340, 0 A ?><>ILN A>7=0=8O ?@>8AE>48B ;8HL 53> 8=48284CC<=>5 8 >1I5G5;>25G5A:>5 >A>7=0=85), B> 8=48284C0;L=0O AD5@0 >:@C60NI53> <8@0, >B@060NI0O ?5@A>=8D8F8@>20==K9 :@C3>7>@, 8=48284C0;L=>5 2>A?@8OB85 8=D>@<0F88, @5D;5:A8N =0 A>1KB8O 8 O2;5=8O, AC645=8O 8 459AB28O 4@C38E ;N459, ?@>4>;605B 2 ?>;=>9 <5@5 7028A5BL >B AB5?5=8 @0728B>AB8 <b><i><5=B0;8B5B0</i></b> 40==>3> 8=482840, 8 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L >B 53> A>7=0=8O. >B ?>G5<C ?@028;L=55 1C45B 3>2>@8BL: &laquo; 0728B>5 8=48284C0;L=>5 A>7=0=85 :064>3> G5;>25:0 >?@545;O5B 53> :@C3>7>@, 53> 8=48284C0;L=>5 1KB85, 2 8B>35 >B@060OAL =0 >1I5AB25==><&raquo;, 0 =5 =0>1>@>B. "0:8< >1@07><, <K 8<55< :0: 1K 420 20@80=B0: <br> <dd><div align="left">1. ;O <b>@0728B>3></b>, 7@5;>3> A>7=0=8O, :>340: 8=48284C0;L=>5 A>7=0=85 2>7459AB2C5B =0 <img src="../../images/symm18.gif" height="15" width="19" border="0"> 8=48284C0;L=>5 1KB85 8 40;55 =0 <img src="../../images/symm18.gif" height="15" width="19" border="0"> >1I5AB25==>5 1KB85.</div> <dd>2. ;O <b>=5(4>)@0728B>3></b> A>7=0=8O, :>340: 8=48284C0;L=>5 A>7=0=85 ?>425@305BAO 2>7459AB28N <img src="../../images/symm17.gif" height="15" width="19" border="0"> 8=48284C0;L=>3> 1KB8O, =0 :>B>@>5 2>7459AB2C5B <img src="../../images/symm17.gif" height="15" width="19" border="0"> >1I5AB25==>5 1KB85.<br> <dd> @5645 G5< =0G8=0BL @0718@0BLAO, ?>G5<C @0728B>5 A>7=0=85 >?@545;O5B =0H5 1KB85, 0 =5@0728B>5 >?@545;O5BAO 8<, =5>1E>48<> ?>=OBL ACBL ?>=8<0=8O A0<>3> @50;L=>3> <span><i>1KB8O</i>. ;O >1;53G5=8O MB>3> G5;>25G5AB2> 87402=0 @0AI5?8;>, @0745;8;> 53> =0 <b><i>?>=OB8O</i></b>. -B> AB0;> =5>1E>48<> ;N4O< =0 >?@545;Q==>< MB0?5 8E @0728B8O 4;O C?@>I5=8O 2>7<>6=>AB8 >A>7=020=8O 1KB8O, >48=0:>2>3> 53> <i>?>=8<0=8O</i> A B5<, GB>1K ?@>4>;68BL ACI5AB2>20BL 2 =Q< ?> E>4C 40;L=59H53> A2>53> A>25@H5=AB2>20=8O. !;>2> <i>?>=OB85</i> O2;O5BAO ><>=8<>< 8 8<55B B@8 7=0G5=8O: 1) ?@>F5AA ?>=8<0=8O, ?>AB865=8O <i>8AB8=K</i>; 2) @57C;LB0B ?@>F5AA0 ?>=8<0=8O, ?>AB865=85 8AB8=K; 3) >1>7=0G5=85 ?@54<5B0, AC1J5:B0->1J5:B0, ?@>F5AA0, O2;5=8O. <br> <dd><i>>=OB8O<8 </i>G5;>25G5AB2> AB0;> ?>;L7>20BLAO A <><5=B0 ?>O2;5=8O C =53> ?5@2KE ?@87=0:>2 7@5NI53> A>7=0=8O, >B;8G=>3> >B <5=B0;8B5B0 682>B=KE. 0: ?8A0; 0=B: &laquo;>A@54AB2>< GC2AB25==>AB8 ?@54<5BK =0< <i>40NBAO</i>, 8 B>;L:> >=0 4>AB02;O5B =0< A>75@F0=8O; <KA;OBAO 65 ?@54<5BK @0AAC4:><, 8 87 @0AAC4:0 2>7=8:0NB <i>?>=OB8O</i>. "0:8< >1@07><, 2AO:>5 G5;>25G5A:>5 ?>7=0=85 =0G8=05BAO A A>75@F0=89, ?5@5E>48B >B =8E : ?>=OB8O< 8 70:0=G8205BAO 845O<8. AO:>5 >A=>20==>5 =0 @07C<5 ?>7=0=85 8AE>48B 87 ?>=OB89 8;8 87 :>=AB@C:F88 ?>=OB89; ?5@2>5 =07K205BAO D8;>A>DA:8<, 0 2B>@>5 - <0B5<0B8G5A:8<&raquo;. <br> <dd> AQ <i>1KB85</i> A =5:>B>@KE ?>@ AB0;> 2>7<>6=K< ?@54AB02;OBL 8 ?>7=020BL A ?><>ILN <i>?>=OB89</i>, ?>AB865=85 :>B>@KE =0<8 G5@57 A2>Q 8=48284C0;L=>5 A>7=0=85 8 >?@545;O5B =0H5 8=48284C0;L=>5 1KB85. > ?5@54 B5< :0: ?>;L7>20BLAO ?>=OB8O<8, <K ?@5645 4>;6=K 8E ?@8>1@5AB8 8 >A<KA;8BL 8 ;8HL B>340 ?@8<5=OBL 2 A2>59 ?@0:B8G5A:>9 687=8.  ?>=OB8O 2>?;>B8;8AL, AB0;8 >;8F5B2>@OBLAO 8<8 =5 B>;L:> ?@54<5BK 8 O2;5=8O 2 :>=:@5B=>9 8 >1>1I5==>9 D>@<5 ?>A@54AB2>< D8:A0F88 >1I8E 8 A?5F8D8G5A:8E 8E ?@87=0:>2, => 8 @07;8G=K5 <KA;8, AC645=8O, >B@060NI85 A>1KB8O 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, A2O78 <564C ?@54<5B0<8 8 O2;5=8O<8, >A=>20==K5 =0 8E A2>9AB20E 8 >B=>H5=8OE <564C =8<8.  8B>35<i> ?>=OB8O</i> AB0;8 A0<K<8 @0A?@>AB@0=Q==K<8 ?@54<5B0<8 ?>;L7>20=8O G5;>25:0, >1J5:B0<8 8 8=AB@C<5=B0<8 53> A>7=0=8O, O2;OOAL A0<8 ?> A515, ?> A;>20< 5=8=0, &laquo;2KAH8< ?@>4C:B>< <>730, 2KAH53> ?@>4C:B0 <0B5@88&raquo;. <br> <dd> N1>9 >1J5:B, ?@54<5B 8;8 O2;5=85 <>3CB >1>7=0G0BLAO 2 ?>=OB8OE :0: :>=:@5B=>, B0: 8 >1>1IQ==>, GB> 4>AB8305BAO 70 AGQB ?@8<5=5=8O 2 ?@>F5AA5 ?>7=0=8O B0:8E C<AB25==KE 459AB289, :0: 01AB@0:F8O, 8450;870F8O, >1>1I5=85, A@02=5=85, >?@545;5=85. >A@54AB2>< >B45;L=KE ?>=OB89 8 A8AB5< ?>=OB89 >B>1@060NBAO D@03<5=BK 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, 87CG05<K5 @07;8G=K<8 =0C:0<8 8 =0CG=K<8 B5>@8O<8. -=35;LA >B<5G0;, GB> &laquo;@57C;LB0BK, 2 :>B>@KE >1>1I0NBAO 40==K5 >?KB>2 5AB5AB2>7=0=8O, ACBL <span><b><i>?>=OB8O</i></b>&raquo;. <br> <dd>  ?>=OB8OE G0AB> >B@060NBAO B0:85 ?@54<5BK 8 8E A2>9AB20, :>B>@K5 =52>7<>6=> ?@54AB028BL 2 2845 =03;O4=>3> >1@070. @8 ?><>I8 ?>=OB89 >B>1@060NBAO D@03<5=BK :0: 0:BC0;L=>9 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, B0: 8 O2;5=89 2 8E 8AB>@8G5A:>9 @5B@>A?5:B825. "0:>9 ?>4E>4 >1;53G05B 2845=85 8 >A>7=0=85 ?@>F5AA0 ?>AB>O==>3> 87<5=5=8O 8 @0728B8O 87CG05<>9 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 8 O2;5=89, GB> A?>A>1AB2C5B C3;C1;5=8N =0H8E 7=0=89 > =8E, ?><>305B M:AB@0?>;8@>20BL E>4 8E 40;L=59H53> @0728B8O, ?@542845BL ##). <br> <dd>. 0=B CB25@640; B0:65: &laquo;'B>1K ?>7=0BL a priori (B.5. 70@0=55, =57028A8<> >B >?KB0) 2>7<>6=>ABL >?@545;5==KE ?@8@>4=KE 25I59, B@51C5BAO 5IQ, GB>1K 1K;> 40=> A>>B25BAB2CNI55 ?>=OB8N 0?@8>@=>5 <i>A>75@F0=85,</i> B.5. GB>1K ?>=OB85 1K;> :>=AB@C8@>20=>. > ?>7=0=85 @07C<><, >A=>20==>5 =0 :>=AB@C8@>20=88 ?>=OB89, 5ABL ?>7=0=85 <0B5<0B8G5A:>5. !;54>20B5;L=>, G8AB0O D8;>A>D8O ?@8@>4K 2>>1I5, B.5. B0:0O, :>B>@0O 8AA;5-4C5B ;8HL B>, GB> A>AB02;O5B ?>=OB85 ?@8@>4K 2>>1I5, E>BO 8 2>7<>6=0 157 <0B5<0B8:8, => G8AB>5 CG5=85 > ?@8@>45, :0A0NI55AO <i>>?@545;Q==KE</i> ?@8@>4=KE 25I59 (CG5=85 > B5;0E 8 CG5=85 > 4CH5), 2>7<>6=> ;8HL ?>A@54AB2>< <0B5<0B8:8; 8 B0: :0: 2> 2AO:>< CG5=88 > ?@8@>45 8<55BAO =0C:8 2 A>1AB25==>< A<KA;5 ;8HL AB>;L:>, A:>;L:> 8<55BAO 2 =59 0?@8>@=>3> ?>7=0=8O, B> CG5=85 > ?@8@>45 1C45B A>45@60BL =0C:C 2 A>1AB25==>< A<KA;5 ;8HL 2 B>9 <5@5, 2 :0:>9 <>65B 1KBL ?@8-<5=5=0 2 =Q< <0B5<0B8:0&raquo;. <br> <dd> 5;5=85 =0 ?>=OB8O 2 ACI=>AB8 ?@>872>;L=>5, => ?@86820NBAO B>;L:> B5, :>B>@K5 >:070;8AL ?@0:B8G5A:8 =081>;55 ?>;57=K<8, G0AB> C?>B@51;O5<K<8. > <5@5 ?>=8<0=8O 8 >A>7=0=8O 1KB8O 2AQ 2@5<O 22>4OBAO =>2K5 ?>=OB8O, ?>MB><C >G5=L 206=>, GB>1K 8E 22>48;8 2 ?@0:B8:C 8;8 E>BO 1K ?>425@30;8 M:A?5@B875, >1>1I0;8 A?5F80;8ABK ?> B5< 8;8 8=K< 0A?5:B0< 1KB8O, A D8;>A>DA:>-D8;>;>38G5A:8<8 A?>A>1=>ABO<8. -B> 4>AB0B>G=> A;>6=K9 8 :@>?>B;82K9 B@C4. <br> <dd> >=OB8O =5?>A@54AB25==> 70:@5?;ONBAO 8 2K@060NBAO 2 O7K:>2>9 D>@<5 - 2 2845 >B45;L=KE A;>2 8 A;>2>A>G5B0=89, A2>53> @>40 8E O@;K:>2, =04?8A59 =0 =8E (&laquo;AB>;&raquo;, &laquo;0B><&raquo;, &laquo;G5;>25:&raquo;, &laquo;;N1>2L&raquo;, &laquo;4>1@>&raquo;, &laquo;A>25ABL&raquo;, &laquo;8=B5@5A=0O :=830&raquo;, &laquo;A?5F80;L=K5 7=0=8O&raquo; 8 B.4.). =>340 4;O @07JOA=5=8O B>3> 8;8 8=>3> ?>=OB8O B@51C5BAO F5;>5 >1JOA=5=85, 4;O G53> A>740NBAO B>;:>2K5 A;>20@8 (=0?@8<5@, B>;:>2K9 A;>20@L . 0;O), M=F8:;>?5488. =0=85 ;N1>3> 8=>AB@0==>3> O7K:0 >7=0G05B 7=0=85 845=B8G=>AB8 ?>=OB89 =0 >1>8E O7K:0E.  B> 65 2@5<O =0 O7K:0E <=>38E <0;>G8A;5==KE =0@>4>2 >BACBAB2CNB <=>385 ?>=OB8O, >A>15==> =>2K5, A>2@5<5==K5. >MB><C =0F8>=0;L=>5 >1>A>1;5=85 =5:>B>@KE =0@>4>2, 8E =565;0=85 ?>;L7>20BLAO 1>;55 @0728BK<8 O7K:0<8 B>@<>78B @0728B85 8E =0F8>=0;L=>3> A>7=0=8O, 0 A;54>20B5;L=>, 8E >1I89 ?@>3@5AA, AC68205B 8E 1KB85 8 687=5==CN ?5@A?5:B82C, G53> =5 ?>=8<0NB 8E =0F8>=0;8AB8G5A:85 ;845@K, 40 8 A0<8 MB8 =0@>4=>AB8. <br> <dd> 07=8F0 2 7=0=8OE ;N459 >1@07C5BAO 2A;54AB285 =5>48=0:>2>3> >A2>5=8O (8 CA2>5=8O) 8<8 >1I58725AB=KE ?>=OB89, C65 =5 3>2>@O > =>2KE, 1>;55 A>2@5<5==KE, :0: 2 :>;8G5AB25==><, B0: 8 2 :0G5AB25==>< 2K@065=88. 07=>3;0A8O <564C ;N4L<8 G0AB> B0:65 2>7=8:0NB 87-70 =5?@028;L=>3> B@0:B>20=8O 8<8 B5E 8;8 8=KE ?>=OB89, =5?>=8<0=8O E>40 @0728B8O >1>7=0G05<KE A 8E ?><>ILN A>1KB89 8 O2;5=89. <br> <dd> "0:8< >1@07><, <b><i>?>=OB85</i></b> AB0;> 8 O2;O5BAO =5 B>;L:> :;NG52K< 8=AB@C<5=B>< :064>4=52=>3> ?>;L7>20=8O :064>3> A25BA:>3> G5;>25:0, 1;03>40@O :>B>@><C >= <>65B ACI5AB2>20BL 2 >1I5AB25 A515 ?>4>1=KE, >=>, ?> ACB8, >15A?5G8205B 25AL E>4 40;L=59H53> @0728B8O MB><C ACI5AB2>20=8N. >MB><C B0: 206=>, GB>1K ;N48 =5 B>;L:> ?>;L7>20;8AL 2A5< =01>@>< 8725AB=KE ?>=OB89, => 8 87CG0;8 =>2K5, ?>=8<0;8 8E >48=0:>2>, A>25@H0;8 >48=0:>2K5 0;3>@8B<K 459AB289, A>>B25BAB2CNI85 :064><C 87 =8E, CB>G=O;8, A25@OOAL A =8<8, A2>8 =>@<K 8 ?@028;0 ?>2545=8O 2 <i>A25B5</i>. >=D5AA8>=0;L=K5 65 701>@K, =0?@>B82, <5H0NB MB><C ?>78B82=><C ?@>F5AAC. <br> <dd> 0 ?@>BO65=88 2A59 A2>59 8AB>@88 G5;>25G5AB2> A>740<span>QB, A>18@05B, CB>G=O5B 8 4>2>48B 4> A>25@H5=AB20 :064>5 <i>?>=OB85</i>, ?@8A?>A01;820O 53> : 8A?>;L7>20=8N :0: <>6=> 1>;LH8< G8A;>< G;5=>2 >1I5AB20. !CI5AB2> ?>=OB89 70B@038205B 2A5 0A?5:BK :0: @50;L=>9, B0: 8 28@BC0;L=>9 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, =0G8=0O >B ?@8@>4K A0<>3> G5;>25:0, 53> :064>4=52=>9 ?@0:B8G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 70:0=G820O A0<K<8 3;C18==K<8 AB>@>=0<8 53> 2=CB@5==53> 8 2=5H=53> <8@>2. @8 MB>< 206=> 4>AB8GL A>AB>O=8O, GB>1K <8@>>ICI5=85, <8@>?>=8<0=85 <0:A8<0;L=> A>2?040;> C 1>;LH8=AB20 G;5=>2 ;N1>3> 40==>3> A>>1I5AB20, 0 2 8B>35 - C G5;>25G5AB20 2 F5;><.  MB8E F5;OE :064K9 G5;>25: ?>;CG05B H:>;L=>5, 0 70B5< 8 2KAH55 >1@07>20=85, ?8HCBAO CG51=8:8, B>;:>2K5 A;>20@8, M=F8:;>?5488, ?@028;0 ?>2545=8O, :>45:AK, 70:>=K, :>=AB8BCF88, 2A5>1I85 5:;0@0F88, A>7K20NBAO <564C=0@>4=K5 D>@C<K 8 :>=D5@5=F88, @01>B0NB 2>A?8B0B5;8, ?@5?>4020B5;8, ?@>D5AA>@K, DC=:F8>=8@CNB 0@18B@068, AC4K 2A5E 8=AB0=F89 2?;>BL 4> 564C=0@>4=>3>. <br> <dd> 45AL =5>1E>48<> :>A=CBLAO >4=>9 87 A0<KE 8=B5@5A=KE 8 4> A8E ?>@ 4> :>=F0 =5@073040==KE :0B53>@89 1KB8O, 0 A =8< 8 <8@>?>=8<0=8O, :0:>2K< O2;O5BAO <span><b><i>2@5<O</i></b>, B.5. B>, A G5< :064K9 87 =0A 157 8A:;NG5=8O B0:65 AB0;:8205BAO 5654=52=>, 565G0A=>, 565<8=CB=>, 565A5:C=4=>, :064>5 <3=>25=L5, :064CN 4>;N <3=>25=LO... <br> <dd><div align="left">@5<O, >B=>AOI55AO : @07@O4C 3;>10;L=KE :0B53>@89, =5;L7O >AB0=>28BL. >MB><C <K ?>AB>O==> A;548< 70 =8< ?> G0A0<, ?KB0OAL C3=0BLAO 70 53> E>4><, 0 >=> =5 64QB 8 =5C<>;8<> 42865BAO 2?5@54 A> A:>@>ABLN 24 G0A0 2 ACB:8, ?5@5=>AO :064CN <8=CBC, :064K9 G0A, :064K9 45=L 8 B.4. 87 =0H53> ##) 2 =0H5 =52>72@0B8<>5  (. 0;> :B> 87 =0A ?>-=0AB>OI5<C >A>7=05B, GB> 2A5 <K, ;N48, :0: 8 2AO >:@C60NI0O =0A ?@8@>40, @07<5I5=K =0 >AB@85 A5:C=4=>9 AB@5;:8 G0A>2, ?@54AB02;ONI59 <i>0:BC0;L=CN 459AB28B5;L=>ABL</i>, A :>B>@>9 ?5@5<5I05<AO A:2>7L A>1KB8O 8 O2;5=8O 1KB8O 2 B5G5=85 2A59 A2>59 687=8. 07<5@K <i>0:BC0;L=>9 459AB28B5;L=>AB8</i> A:>;L C3>4=> <0;K 8 D0:B8G5A:8 @02=K 25;8G8=5 <nobr>1/<img src="../../images/symm03.gif" height="15" width="17" border="0"></nobr> (548=8F5, 45;Q==>9 =0 15A:>=5G=>ABL).</div></p> </blockquote><center> <p><img src="../../images/axist01.gif" height="53" width="554" border="0"></p> </center><blockquote> <blockquote> <p><div align="left">(345 AD - B>G:0 <b><i>:BC0;L=>9 459AB28B5;L=>AB8</i></b>, O2;ONI0OAO B>G:>9 >BAGQB0, ?5@5<5I0NI59AO ?> >@48=0B5 2@5<5=8 t 2 AB>@>=C +t A> A:>@>ABLN 24 G0A0 2 ACB:8, ?@5>1@07CNI59 <i>1C4CI55</i> +t 2 <i>?@>H;>5</i> <nobr>-t.</nobr> ">G:0 AD 2A5340 E0@0:B5@87C5BAO :>=:@5B=K<, ?@8ACI8< B>;L:> 59 2@5<5==K< >1>7=0G5=85< - &quot;40B>9&quot;, 2:;NG0NI8< >1>7=0G5=85 3>40, <5AOF0, G8A;0, 4=O =545;8, G0A0, <8=CBK, A5:C=4K, <8;;8A5:C=4K 8 B.4., :>B>@>5 2 F5;OE C?@>I5=8O G0AB> ?@>87=>A8BAO =5 ?>;=>ABLN)</div></p> </blockquote> <p> <dd> A2O78 A MB8< 5IQ 2 3;C1>:>9 4@52=>AB8 ;N48 70<5B8;8 8 70D8:A8@>20;8 2 2845 8AB8=K A;54CNI55 ?>;>65=85: &laquo;<i>TEMPORA MUTANTUR, ET NOS MUTANTUR IN ILLIS</i>&raquo;<i>,</i> GB> 2 ?5@52>45 A ;0B8=A:>3> >7=0G05B: &laquo;<b><i>@5<5=0 <5=ONBAO, 8 <K <5=O5<AO A =8<8</i></b>&raquo;<i>.</i> <br> <dd> GQ< 65 A>1AB25==> ?@>8AE>4OB 87<5=5=8O, GB> <5=O5BAO 2 1KB88 A> <i>2@5<5=5<</i>? @5645 2A53>, 845B 87<5=5=85 >A>7=0=8O G5;>25:>< (2 >1I5<, A>18@0B5;L=>< A<KA;5 MB>3> A;>20) <i>?>=OB89</i>, 87 :>B>@KE A>AB>8B 1KB85, B.5. :>;8G5AB25==K9 (?CBQ< 4>102;5=8O =>2KE) 8 :0G5AB25==K9 (?CBQ< 8E A>25@H5=AB2>20=8O, C3;C1;5=8O) 8E @>AB. >=OB8O A0<8 ?> A515 =5 5ABL GB>-B> 70ABK2H55, @07 8 =02A5340 CAB>O2H55AO. 064>5 ?>=OB85 @0728205BAO 2 AB>@>=C 53> 8AB8==>AB8, :>B>@0O, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, 2A5 1;865 ?@81;8605BAO : 459AB28B5;L=>9 @50;L=>AB8. <b>AB8=0</b> - @CAA:>5 A;>2>. < >1>7=0G05BAO B>, GB> 5ABL, GB> 25@=>, ?>4;8==>, B>G=>, A?@0254;82>. =K<8 A;>20<8, B>, GB> =0 A0<>< 45;5 5ABL, 8 5ABL <i>8AB8=0</i>. <br> <dd> ;O C?@>I5=8O ?>;L7>20=8O ?>=OB8O<8 G5;>25: ?@8405B 8< <5@=>ABL 8 A>@07<5@=>ABL ?CBQ< H:0;, A@02=5=89. "0: 0=B, =0?@8<5@, ?@54;>68; A2>N &laquo;<span><i>H:0;C AC1J5:B82=>9</i> <i>8AB8==>AB8</i>&raquo;: &laquo;@87=0=85 8AB8==>AB8 AC645=8O, 8;8 AC1J5:B82=0O 7=0G8<>ABL AC645=8O, 8<55B A;54CNI85 B@8 ABC?5=8 2 >B=>H5=88 C15645=8O (:>B>@>5 8<55B B0:65 >1J5:B82=CN 7=0G8<>ABL): <i><=5=85</i>, <i>25@C</i> 8 <i>7=0=85</i>. <i>=5=85</i> 5ABL A>7=0B5;L=>5 ?@87=0=85 G53>-B> 8AB8==K<, =54>AB0B>G=>5 <i>:0:</i> A AC1J5:B82=>9, <i>B0:</i> 8 A >1J5:B82=>9 AB>@>=K. A;8 ?@87=0=85 8AB8==>AB8 AC645=8O 8<55B 4>AB0B>G=>5 >A=>20=85 A AC1J5:B82=>9 AB>@>=K 8 2 B> 65 2@5<O AG8B05BAO >1J5:B82=> =54>AB0B>G=K<, B> >=> =07K205BAO <i>25@>9</i>. 0:>=5F, 8 AC1J5:B82=> 8 >1J5:B82=> 4>AB0B>G=>5 ?@87=0=85 8AB8==>AB8 AC645=8O 5ABL <i>7=0=85</i>. !C1J5:B82=0O 4>AB0B>G=>ABL =07K205BAO <i>C15645=85<</i> (4;O <5=O A0<>3>), 0 >1J5:B82=0O 4>AB0B>G=>ABL - <i>4>AB>25@=>ABLN</i> (4;O :064>3>)&raquo;. <br> <dd><div align="left">4=0:> ?@54;>65==0O 0=B>< H:0;0 =5 >B@0605B @0728B8O 2> 2@5<5=8 >1J5:B82=>9 4>AB>25@=>AB8 AC645=8O 8;8 ?>=OB8O. >MB><C 4;O :064>3> ?>=OB8O ACI5AB2C5B A2>53> @>40 &quot;<i>H:0;0 >1J5:B82=>9 8AB8==>AB8</i>&quot;, 1078@CNI0OAO =0 >@48=0B5 2@5<5=8, >B>1@060NI0O MB0?K @0728B8O ?>=OB8O 8;8 AC645=8O =0 ?CB8 : <b><i><a href="../glossary.htm#true">8AB8=5</a></i></b>:<br> <dd><div align="left"><b>0) <i>=52545=85</i></b> > ?@54<5B5 ?>=OB8O <img src="../../images/symm18.gif" height="15" width="19" border="0"> <b>1) <i>?5@2>5 ?@54AB02;5=85</i></b> > ?@54<5B5 ?>=OB8O <img src="../../images/symm18.gif" height="15" width="19" border="0"> <b>2)</b> 1>;55 C3;C1;5==K5 7=0=8O (<b><i><a href="../glossary.htm#true2">>B=>A8B5;L=0O 8AB8=0</a></i></b>) <img src="../../images/symm18.gif" height="15" width="19" border="0"> <b>3)</b> ?>;=K5 7=0=8O > ACB8 ?>=OB8O (<b><i><a href="../glossary.htm#true3">01A>;NB=0O 8AB8=0</a></i></b>).<br> <dd> @0D8G5A:8 MB> <>6=> 87>1@078BL A;54CNI8< >1@07><:<br> </blockquote><center> <p><table height="20" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0"> <tr><td align="center"><img src="../../images/diag01.gif" height="27" width="522" border="0"></td></tr> <tr><td height="10"></td></tr> <tr><td align="center"><img src="../../images/axist01.gif" height="53" width="554" border="0"></td></tr> </table></p> </center><blockquote> <p><dd><div align="left">N4O<, 8<5NI8< A?>A>1=>AB8 >2;045BL :0:8<-;81> ?>=OB85< =0 MB0?5 2-9 8;8 3-9 ABC?5=8 H:0;K, =C;520O 8 ?5@20O 55 ABC?5=8 ?@54AB02;ONBAO :0: CAB0@52H85 7=0=8O. 4=0:> ?@8 MB>< =5>1E>48<> 2A5340 ?><=8BL > <i>?@8=F8?5 A>>B25BAB28O</i>, :>B>@K9 2=>A8B 2 @0728B85 :064>3> 8AB8==>3> ?>=OB8O AB@>3CN :0A:04=>ABL ?> =0@0AB0NI59.</div> <dd> @><5 B>3>, @0728B85 ?>=OB8O <>65B ?>9B8 2>>1I5 ?> ;>6=><C, =5=0CG=><C, G0AB> BC?8:>2><C ?CB8. "0:>3> @>40 >B:;>=5=8O >B 25@=>3>, ?@028;L=>3> =0?@02;5=8O ?>8A:0 <span><i>8AB8=K</i> ?@82>4OB, :0: ?@028;>, : <b><i>1@54C</i></b>. A;54AB285 MB>3> 2 687=8 8<55B <5AB> AB>;L:> =54>?>=8<0=8O <564C >B45;L=K<8 ;N4L<8, F5;K<8 =0@>40<8, 4>E>4OI53> 4> 03@5AA82=>3> 0=B03>=87<0, ?@8G8=>9 G5<C >:07K205BAO 2A53> ;8HL =0E>645=85 =0 @07=KE ABC?5=OE ?>7=0=8O B5E 8;8 8=KE <b><i>?>=OB89</i></b>, 8;8 2>>1I5 GLQ-B> 42865=85 2 ;>6=><, 1@54>2>< 8;8 3;C1>:> CAB0@52H5< =0?@02;5=88 ?>8A:0 8E A<KA;0, 8;8 =5C4>2;5B2>@8B5;L=>5 A>AB>O=85 B5E 8;8 8=KE =01>@>2 7=0=89. <br> <dd> A>15==> <=>3> AB@040=89 ?@8=>A8B ;N4O< =0<5@5==>5 22545=85 8E 2 701;C645=85 =0 :>=D5AA8>=0;L=>-F5@:>2=>< C@>2=5. >MB><C B>;L:> @0AAC4>G=K5 A?>A>1=>AB8 <span>G5;>25:0, 53> <b>@07C<</b>, ;>38:0 <KH;5=8O <>3CB A;C68BL 5<C 70I8B>9 4;O A>E@0=5=8O >B ?@>872>;0 872=5 =0 53> A>7=0=85 8 1KBL <5@8;><, <b><i>:@8B5@85< 8AB8=K</i></b>.  MB> >7=0G05B C<5=85 =0CG8BLAO A0<><C >?@545;OBL 25@=>5 =0?@02;5=85 ?>8A:0 =5>1E>48<KE ?>=OB89, 2K18@0BL 87 =8E ?>78B82=K5, =081>;55 8AB8==K5, 0 5A;8 =C6=>, A>74020BL (?@8 >?@545;5==KE CA;>28OE) =>2K5 8 >?5@8@>20BL B>;L:> 8 8<5==> 8<8. <br> <dd>  :0G5AB25 :;0AA8G5A:>3> ?@8<5@0 E>G5BAO =0?><=8BL A;CG09 A @8AB>B5;5<, :>B>@K9, @07282 87=0G0;L=> 87;>65==>5 ;0B>=>< ?>=OB85 > ?5@2>>A=>25 <8@0, =0?>;=8; 53> =>2K<, 1>;55 25@=K< A>45@60=85<.  8B>35 >= 1K; 2K=C645= @0AAB0BLAO A> A2>8< CG8B5;5<, ?@>4>;602H8< =0AB0820BL =0 CAB0@52H59 B>G:5 7@5=8O ?> MB><C 2>?@>AC. <5==> B>340 @>48;>AL 8725AB=>5 87@5G5=85: &laquo;;0B>= <=5 4@C3, => <span><b>8AB8=0</b> 4>@>65!&raquo;  B> 65 2@5<O @8AB>B5;L C:07K20;: &laquo;0C:0, ?@0:B8G=>ABL, <C4@>ABL 8 @07C< ACBL B5 A@54AB20, :>B>@K<8 <K 4>AB8305< 8AB8=K 8 1;03>40@O :>B>@K< =8:>340 =5 >H8105<AO >B=>A8B5;L=> B>3>, GB> 0:BC0;L=> 8 87<5=G82>, => ?@52KH5 2A53> 745AL A;54C5B AG8B0BL @07C<&raquo;. <br> <dd> !CI5AB2C5B =5<0;> ?>=OB89, ?@> :>B>@K5 =5;L7O A> 100% C25@5==>ABLN A:070BL, GB> >=8 &laquo;01A>;NB=K5 8AB8=K&raquo; 2 40==>9 AD5@5, B.5. GB> 2?@54L =5 1C4CB 2KO2;5=K 2 =0?@02;5=88 CB>G=5=8O 40==>3> ?>=OB8O =>2K5 7=0=8O, A CGQB>< :>B>@KE 8<5NI55AO 53> B>;:>20=85 <>65B AB0BL 2 ?>;>65=85 &laquo;>B=>A8B5;L=>9 8AB8=K&raquo;.  MB>< A;CG05 B0:85 ?>=OB8O A;54C5B :20;8D8F8@>20BL :0: &laquo;?@545;L=> ?>7=0==0O 01A>;NB=0O&raquo;, GB>, ?> ACB8, 8 5ABL &laquo;>B=>A8B5;L=0O 8AB8=0&raquo;. -B> >7=0G05B, GB> 2KH5, G5< 40==K5 ?>=OB8O, 2 ?>8A:0E 8AB8=K 2 MB>< =0?@02;5=88 7=0=89 ?>:0 =0 40==K9 <><5=B 5IQ =5 ACI5AB2C5B, => =5 8A:;NG5=>, GB> A> 2@5<5=5< MB> ?>;>65=85 <>65B ?>78B82=> 87<5=8BLAO 8 ?>O2OBAO =>2K5 7=0=8O, 45;0NI85 MB> ?>=OB85 1>;55 ?@81;865==K< : &laquo;01A>;NB=>9 8AB8=5&raquo;, ;81> A ?><>ILN 4>?>;=8B5;L=KE ?>OA=5=89 2 ACI5AB2CNI55 ?>=OB85 1C45B 2;>65= 1>;55 ?@028;L=K9 8 1>;LH5 A>>B25BAB2CNI89 @50;8O< 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 A<KA;. "0:8< >1@07><, <span><i>?>=OB8O</i> :0: 1K &laquo;682CB&raquo; A2>59 687=LN. <br> <dd> <5AB5 A B5<, =0@O4C A >A=>2=>9, ?>78B82=>9 3@C??>9 ?>=OB89, ?5@52>48<KE =0 1>;LH8=AB2> H8@>:> 8A?>;L7C5<KE O7K:>2 <8@0, ACI5AB2CNB 5I5 425 A?5F8D8G5A:85 3@C??K ?>=OB89.  ?5@2>9 87 =8E >B=>AOBAO ?>=OB8O C7:>A?5F80;878@>20==K5, C7:>=0CG=K5, AB0=>2OI85AO ?@54<5B0<8 ?A524>=0CG=>3> :8BG0, 0 B0:65 3@C??>2K5, 60@3>==K5 - B0: =07K205<0O &laquo;D5=O&raquo; 8 B.?., B.5. ?>=OB89=K9 <CA>@, :>B>@K9 >A;>6=O5B @01>BC A>7=0=8O, ?@5645 2A53> >1I5AB25==>3>. >MB><C :C;LBC@=0O, 8=B5;;835=B=0O, AB@>3> =0CG=0O A@540 >1I5AB20 B0:>3> @>40 ?>=OB8O 8715305B, =5 2>A?@8=8<05B 8;8 83=>@8@C5B. <br> <dd><div align="left"> @><5 B>3>, ACI5AB2C5B 1>;LH0O 3@C??0 ?>=OB89 ;>6=>3>, =5=0CG=>3> =0?@02;5=8O, >7=0G0NI8E 40;5:85 >B 8AB8=K ?>=OB89=K5 87KA:8, :>B>@K5 C2>4OB 7=0=8O 8=482840 2 =525@=CN AB>@>=C, A?>A>1AB2CO A>740=8N ;>6=KE ?@54AB02;5=89, 8A:@82;5==>3> ?>=8<0=8O 459AB28B5;L=>AB8. !N40 65 >B=>AOBAO ?>=OB8O, ?@>B82=K5 @07C<C, >B@060NI85 =530B82=K5 AB>@>=K 1KB8O.  B0:>3> @>40 ?>=OB8O< <>6=> >B=5AB8, =0?@8<5@, B0:85, :0: &laquo;=0@:>B8:&raquo;, &laquo;GQ@B&raquo;, &laquo;?@82845=85&raquo;, &laquo;04&raquo;, &laquo;<07>E87<&raquo;, &laquo;2>9=0&raquo;, &laquo;D0H87<&raquo;, &laquo;B5@@>@8AB&raquo;, &laquo;C189F0&raquo;, &laquo;D0=0B8:&raquo;, &laquo;H87>D@5=8O&raquo;, &laquo;B@0=A25AB8B&raquo; 8 B.?. AN C:070==CN 3@C??C <>6=> =0720BL =530B82=K<8 ?>=OB8O<8 8;8 <b><i>=530?>=OB8O<8</i></b>.</div> <dd><div align="left"> 5;8388 2A5E =0?@02;5=89, 8<5NI85 2 A2>8E CG5=8OE =5<0;> =530?>=OB89, B5< =5 <5=55, 2> 2A5 2@5<5=0 2K@060;8 ?@5:;>=5=85 ?5@54 2A5< 8AB8==K<.  :0G5AB25 ?>4B25@645=8O <>6=> ?@825AB8 A;>20 @>@>:0 CE0<<540: &laquo;;;0E - MB> OA=0O 8AB8=0&raquo;.  =8:0:0O =5 25@0. CAC;L<0=8= <>65B 8 4>;65= A:;>=8BLAO B>;L:> ?5@54 !". ">G=> B0: 65, :0: 8 E@8AB80=8=. > A;>20< %@8AB0: &laquo;>3 5ABL 4CE 8 !"&raquo;.  =5 &laquo;;N1>2L&raquo;. >;8BLAO <span>>3C 2 1C:20;L=>< A<KA;5 >7=0G05B &laquo;<b>?>AB830BL 8AB8=C</b>&raquo;.</div> <dd> B0:, 2A5 G5;>25G5AB2> 2 F5;><, :0: 8 :064K9 G5;>25: 2 >B45;L=>AB8, 682QB ?> <b><i>?>=OB8O<</i></b> (B0:65 =530?>=OB8O<), B.5. >?@545;5=8O< 8 >48=0:>2K< ?>=8<0=85< 2A53> B>3>, GB> ;N1>3> G5;>25:0 (8 G5;>25G5AB2> 2 F5;><) >:@C605B 2 ?>2A54=52=>9 687=8. ;O 2A5E ?>=OB89 E0@0:B5@=>: 1) 42865=85 : 8AB8=5 (>B =52545=8O : 01A>;NBC); 2) AB@C:BC@8@>20=85 8 40;L=59H0O 45B0;870F8O =0 A>AB02;ONI85, 8;8 ?>OA=ONI85 M;5<5=BK (AC1?>=OB8O); 3) <0AHB018@>20=85 8;8 <0B5<0B8G5A:>5 >?8A0=85 (4;O 87<5@5=8O 8;8 A@02=5=8O); 4) DC=:F8>=0;L=0O ?>;O@=>ABL (?>78B82=>5, =530B82=>5, =59B@0;L=>5). <br> <dd> 064>5 ?>=OB85 (=530?>=OB85), 5A;8 >=> 70459AB2>20=>, >B@0605BAO 2 A>7=0=88 G5;>25:0 8 2;5GQB 70 A>1>9 2 @50;L=>9 687=8 B> 8;8 8=>5 459AB285 8=482840, ?@>872>48<>5 ?> >?@545;5==><C ?>@O4:C, B.5. <span><b><i>0;3>@8B<C</i></b>.  2A5 MB> @0728205BAO 2 >?@545;Q==>9 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>AB8 2> 2@5<5=8, :0G5AB25 8 ?@>AB@0=AB25. 8@>2>77@5=85 8 :@C3>7>@ ;N459 D>@<8@CNBAO, 0 =5@54:> <5=ONBAO ?>4 2;8O=85< B5E 8;8 8=KE 2=>2L >1@5BQ==KE (?>7=0==KE) ?>=OB89 (=530?>=OB89). <br> <dd> 45AL A;54C5B =0?><=8BL >1 5IQ >4=>9, >G5=L 206=>9 3;>10;L=>9 :0B53>@88 - > 42865=88 0B5@88 2 <span><b><i>:0G5AB25</i></b>, :>B>@CN A;54C5B E>@>H> 7=0BL. (>4@>1=55 > =59 <>6=> ?@>G8B0BL 2 :=835 &laquo;<b><i>80;5:B8:0 <0B5@88</i></b> - !8AB5<=K9 ?>4E>4 : >A=>20< D8;>A>D88&raquo;.) <5==> @57C;LB0BK <u>:0G5AB25==>-2@5<5==KE 87<5=5=89</u> D8:A8@CNBAO (@0A?@>AB@0=ONBAO) 2 8?>AB0A8 B@5BL59 3;>10;L=>9 :0B53>@88 <0B5@88 - 2 <i>?@>AB@0=AB25</i>, H:0;>9 87<5@5=8O :>B>@>3> <>65B A;C68BL 8 ;8=59:0, 8 :8;><5B@>2K5 AB>;1K, 8 A25B>2K5 <8=CBK, G0AK, 3>4K.  A2>N >G5@54L, =0@0AB0NI89 ?5@5G5=L DC=:F8>=0;L=>3> @07=>>1@078O ?>=OB89 >:@C60NI53> <8@0, >1;040NI8E A2>8<8 A?5F8D8G5A:8<8 A2>9AB20<8, E0@0:B5@8AB8:0<8, ?0@0<5B@0<8, O2;O5BAO H:0;>9 87<5@5=8O :0B53>@88 <i>:0G5AB2></i>. <br> <dd> @5<5==+5 8 :0G5AB25==K5 87<5=5=8O :0A0NBAO 2A53>. 0B@>=C;8 >=8 2 A2>Q 2@5<O 8 682>B=K9 <8@, 2>72KA82 >4=8E 53> ?@54AB028B5;59 =04 4@C38<8. 0B@03820NB MB8 87<5=5=8O 8 A>2@5<5==>5 =0< G5;>25G5A:>5 >1I5AB2>, 2>72KH0O >4=8E 53> G;5=>2 =04 4@C38<8. <br> <dd>  GQ< 65 @07=OBAO ;N48 8 :0: MB> A2O70=> A B5G5=85< <i>2@5<5=8</i>, A 42865=85< 2<i> :0G5AB25</i>? <br> <dd> ;02=K< @07;8G85< <564C ;N4L<8, 8 C6 B5< 1>;55, B5< >A=>2=K<, GB> >B;8G05B 8E >B 682>B=KE, O2;O5BAO =0;8G85 8 AB5?5=L @0728B>AB8 8E <span><b><i>@0AAC4:0</i></b>, B.5. A?>A>1=>AB8 : 2>A?@8OB8N 8AB8==KE ?>=OB89, AC645=89 8 ?@028;, 2=8:0=8N 2 =8E 8 ?@028;L=><C >?5@8@>20=8N 8<8, A;54>20=8N 8<, @0AH8@5=8N A2>53> :@C3>7>@0, >1JQ<0 7=0=89. ! ?><>ILN 65 <i>@0AAC4:0</i>, O2;ONI53>AO, B0:8< >1@07><, 548=AB25==K<, A>25@H5=AB2CNI8<AO 2> 2@5<5=8 8=AB@C<5=B><, <5@8;><, <i>:@8B5@85< 8AB8==>AB8</i>, >ACI5AB2;O5BAO @0A?>7=020=85 1@540, <CA>@=KE 8 =530?>=OB89, 87102;5=85 >B =8E. >MB><C <564C A>1>9 ;N48 >B;8G0NBAO 2 @57C;LB0B5 ?><8<> ?@>G53> H8@>B>9 :@C3>7>@0, @0728B>ABLN <5=B0;8B5B0 8 AB5?5=LN 8A:065==>AB8 8E A>7=0=8O. <br> <dd> <b><i> 07C<</i></b>, ?> 2A5< >?@545;5=8O<, O2;O5BAO 1>;55 2KA>:>9 @0AAC4>G=>9 ABC?5=LN, 8 53> =0;8G85 C G5;>25:0 ?@54CA<0B@8205B =5 B>;L:> 53> C<5=85 ?@028;L=> >?5@8@>20BL 8AB8==K<8 ?>=OB8O<8, AC645=8O<8 8 ?@028;0<8, =5 B>;L:> 8<5BL H8@>:89 :@C3>7>@, => 8 A?>A>1=>ABL CB>G=OBL =5OA=K5 ?>=OB8O, A>74020BL, B2>@8BL =>2K5, 2K1@0:>2K20BL 8 >B1@0AK20BL 1@54>2K5, <CA>@=K5 8 =530?>=OB8O 1>;55 H8@>:>3> 7=0G5=8O, 2AQ 1>;55 >1>30I0O B5< A0<K< >1I5G5;>25G5A:85 7=0=8O. <br> <dd> &laquo;<i> 07C<</i>, 1C4CG8 =082KAH59 AB5?5=LN <i>1KB8O</i> 2 F5;><, O2;O5BAO, 5A;8 A:070BL :@0B:>, ?@545;L=K< <i>?>=OB85<</i> 2>>1I5&raquo;, - CB25@640; @8AB>B5;L. 0=B ?>4 <i>@07C<><</i> ?>4@07C<520; B0:65 A?>A>1=>ABL G5;>25:0 >ACI5AB2;OBL A2O7L A >:@C60NI8< <8@>< G5@57 <i>4>;65=AB2>20=85</i>. <br> <dd>  MB>9 A2O78 >4=8< 87 A0<KE 206=KE 70=OB89 G5;>25G5AB20, 5A;8 =5 A0<K< 3;02=K< 8 ?>;57=K<, 2A5340 O2;O;AO A1>@, @0A?>7=020=85, CB>G=5=85 8 A>25@H5=AB2>20=85 ?>=OB89, 8E C=8D8:0F8O, >B45;5=85 >B <CA>@=KE 8 =530?>=OB89 8 4>2545=85 4> AB5?5=8 01A>;NB=>9 8AB8=K, C<5=LH0NI59 AB5?5=L @8A:0 2 @57C;LB0B5 >H81>G=>AB8 ?@8 ?>;L7>20=88 8<8 2 :064>4=52=>9 687=8 ?@8 8E B@0=AD>@<0F88 2 0;3>@8B<K 459AB289. <5==> MB0 :@>?>B;820O A>7840B5;L=0O 45OB5;L=>ABL G5;>25G5AB20, =0 :>B>@CN A?>A>1=K ;8HL ;CGH85 53> <span><b>C<K</b>, >ACI5AB2;O5BAO =0 ?@>BO65=88 <=>38E 25:>2, 8 4065 BKAOG5;5B89, 2 <b><i>=>>AD5@5</i></b>. 57C;LB0B>< MB>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 O2;O5BAO ?>AB>O==> >1=>2;O5<0O, 4> A8E ?>@ ?>:0 @07@>7=5==0O, 0 ?>MB><C ?>-A2>5<C 28@BC0;L=0O / ! +% . <br> <dd> !;54C5B 8<5BL 2 284C, GB> =0@O4C A =>>AD5@>9 ACI5AB2C5B B0:65 8 <span><b><i>=530AD5@0</i></b> - AD5@0 2A53> <i>=530B82=>3></i>, GB> >:@C605B =0A, A2>53> @>40 ?>=OB89=0O <CA>@=0O O<0, G@52> <@0:>15A8O, 75@:0;> >B@8F0B5;L=KE AB>@>= 687=8, 345 A:0?;820NBAO <CA>@=K5 8 =530?>=OB8O. >?>;=5=85 =530AD5@K >ACI5AB2;O5BAO 70 AGQB 7=0=89 8 ?>=OB89, >7=0G0NI8E 459AB28O, >B=>AOI85AO : EC4H8< ?>ABC?:0< 8 AC645=8O< G5;>25:>>1@07=KE 8=48284>2, =87:>?@>1=>3> 60@3>=0, A25@E<0@38=0;L=KE @8AC=:>2, :0:>D>=8G5A:>9 <C7K:8. ;O @07C<=>3> G5;>25:0 <i>=530AD5@0</i> - MB> ?>=OB89=0O A20;:0, ;81> <5AB> 70E>@>=5=8O, 345 3@C??8@C5BAO 2A5 ><5@78B5;L=>5, ?@>B82>5AB5AB25==>5, ;>6=>5, =5A2>9AB25==>5 @07C<C, ?@>3@5AAC. <br> <dd> B0:, A>3;0A=> 1>;LH8=AB2C 45D8=8F89 <span><b><i>=>>AD5@>9</i></b> ?@8=OB> =07K20BL AD5@C, =0 :>B>@CN @0A?@>AB@0=O5BAO 459AB285 <b>@07C<0</b>, B.5. AD5@C 35=5@0F88 (?@>872>4AB20), A8AB5<0B870F88, C=8D8:0F88, >B45;5=8O >B =530B82=KE 8 <CA>@=KE ?>=OB89, 0@E820F88, 2>A?@>872545=8O, @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O 8 E@0=5=8O 2A53> <=>3>>1@078O ?>78B82=KE 7=0=89, ?>;CG5==KE A CG0AB85< G5;>25G5A:>3> 8=B5;;5:B0, ?>?>;=O5<KE ?>;57=K<8 B2>@G5A:8<8 8==>20F8O<8 2 >1;0AB8 =0C:8 8 :C;LBC@K. <br> <dd> "5@<8= &laquo;=>>AD5@0&raquo;, 2?5@2K5 22545==K9 2 =0CG=K9 >1>@>B 2 1927 3>4C D@0=FC7A:8< CG<span>Q=K< -. 5@C0, =0H5; >B@065=85 B0:65 2 B@C40E 0:045<8:0 .. 5@=04A:>3>. 7CG0O MB> ?>=OB85, CGQ=K9 2?5@2K5 >A>7=0; 8 ?>?KB0;AO >ACI5AB28BL A8=B57 5AB5AB25==KE 8 >1I5AB25==KE =0C: 4;O 1>;55 ?@028;L=>3> 0=0;870 3;>10;L=>3> 2>7459AB28O G5;>25:0 =0 >:@C60NICN A@54C. <br> <dd><i>>>AD5@0</i> 35=5@8@C5B =5 ?@>AB> ?>78B82=K5 7=0=8O 2 D>@<5 ?>=OB89, ?5@540205<KE ?@8 ?><>I8 AC3C1> =0CG=KE ?>OA=5=89, EC4>65AB25==KE ?@8Q<>2, ?@>872545=89 8A:CAAB20, 2 =59 >=8 D>@<0;87CNBAO 2 8AB8=K (01A>;NB=K5 8;8 ?@545;L=> ?>7=0==K5 01A>;NB=K5, >B=>A8B5;L=K5), :>B>@K<8 ?>B5=F80;L=> 2AQ >G5@54=>5 0:BC0;L=> 682CI55 ?>:>;5=85 ;N459 (G5;>25G5AB20), => ?@5645 2A53> :064K9 >B45;L=K9 G5;>25: <>3CB 8 4>;6=K >?5@8@>20BL (?>;L7>20BLAO) 5654=52=> 2 ?@>F5AA5 A2>59 687=545OB5;L=>AB8, @53C;8@CO A2>Q ?>2545=85, 0 B0:65 >1<5=820OAL 8=D>@<0F859 (@0A?@>AB@0=OO 55) 2 @0<:0E <b><i>8=D>@<0F8>==>3> <5B01>;87<0</i></b>. <br> <p> A;54AB285 MB>3> <564C :064K< G5;>25:>< 8 =>>AD5@>9 ?@>8AE>48B ?>AB>O==K9 >1<5= 8=D>@<0F859 > 2@5<5==<span>>9 8 :0G5AB25==>9 B@0=AD>@<0F88 ?>=OB89 2 AB>@>=C 8E 8AB8==>AB8, > ?>O2;5=88 =>2KE, 2 B.G. 8 =530?>=OB89. A;8 2 =0G0;L=K9 ?5@8>4 A2>59 687=8 2 ?@>F5AA5 A2>53> 2>A?8B0=8O 8 >1@07>20=8O G5;>25: 2 >A=>2=>< B>;L:> 15@QB 87 =>>AD5@K 8=D>@<0F8N > ?>=OB8OE, 2K@01>B0==CN ?@54K4CI8<8 ?>:>;5=8O<8 ;N459 (2 ?@>B82=>< A;CG05 >= ?@52@0B8BAO 2 0C3;8), B> A> 2@5<5=5<, ?>A;5 AB0=>2;5=8O C =53> @07C<0 8 A?>A>1=>AB8 : B2>@G5A:>9 0:B82=>AB8, C ;N1>3> 8=48284CC<0 ?>O2;O5BAO 2>7<>6=>ABL ?><5I0BL ?@>872545==CN C65 8< 8=D>@<0F8N, :0A0NICNAO ?@>3@5AA0 ?>=OB89, 2 =>>AD5@C (2 2845 =0CG=KE AB0B59, :=83, CG51=8:>2, 70:>=>?@>5:B>2, >?8A0=89 >B:@KB89 8 87>1@5B5=89, ;8B5@0BC@=KE, EC4>65AB25==KE 8 <C7K:0;L=KE ?@>872545=89), 8AB8==>ABL 8 ?>;57=>ABL :>B>@>9 >?@545;O5BAO M:A?5@B0<8, ?>;L7>20B5;O<8 8 !" . <br> <p> 0;5:> =5 2AO ?5@2>=0G0;L=> ?><5I05<0O 2 =>>AD5@C 8=D>@<0F8O ?>4E>48B ?>4 AB0=40@B 8AB8=K (01A>;NB=>9 8;8 4065 >B=>A8B5;L=>9). >;LH59 G0ABLN MB> 2AQ-B0:8 ?@5E>4OI85 AC645=8O, ?>4?040NI85 ?>4 >?@545;5=8O: ;>6=K9 ?>AK;, &laquo;8=D>@<0F8>==K9 <CA>@&raquo; 8;8 1@54, 40;5:85 >B ?>78B82=KE ?>=OB89 8 70A>@ONI85 =>>AD5@C. >MB><C B0: 206=> :0: <>6=> A:>@55 >G8I0BL =>>AD5@C >B B0:>3> @>40 8=D>@<0F88, >B?@02;OO 5Q A ?><>ILN @07C<0 2 =530AD5@C. </p> <p> > 8=>340, :0: :@C?8=:8 7>;>B0 2 ?CABCN ?>@>4C, 2 =>>AD5@C ?>?040NB 459AB28B5;L=> H5452@K 01A>;NB=KE (8;8 1;87:8E : =8< >B=>A8B5;L=KE) 8AB8=.  B>340, 5A;8 >=8 2>2@5<O >:070;8AL 70D8:A8@>20==K<8, >=8 70=8<0NB ?>4>10NI55 8< <5AB> 2 7>;>B>< D>=45  ! +% , >B:C40 8< ?@O<0O 4>@>30 2 M=F8:;>?5488, B>;:>2K5 A;>20@8, CG51=8:8, EC4>65AB25==K5 8 <C7K:0;L=K5 D>=4K, 2 :;0AA8:C 8 B.?., => 3;02=>5, 2 '!"+ # , ?>4;560I89 >1O70B5;L=><C >2;045=8N :064K< G5;>25:><, 3@0640=8=><, 68B5;5< ?;0=5BK. </p> <p> <span>><8<> MB>3> <8=8<C<0 ACI5AB2CNB B0:65 !& + /, >G5=L 206=K5 4;O A?5F80;8AB>2, => =5>1O70B5;L=K5 : ?>7=0=8N 4;O >AB0;L=KE.  B>;L:> ?>A;54=OO :0B53>@8O 7=0=89 - '+ 8;8  +, :>B>@K5 2>>1I5 =8:><C =5 @5:><5=4C5BAO 7=0BL, 4>;6=0 ?><5I0BLAO 2 =530AD5@5 4;O ?>A;54CNI53> 70E>@>=5=8O, ;8:2840F88. </p> <p> >>AD5@0 8<55B <0B5@80;L=CN >A=>2C 8, :0: 8 2AQ <0B5@80;L=>5, @0728205BAO 2> <span><i>2@5<5=8 - ?@>AB@0=AB25 - :0G5AB25</i>. </p> <p align="center"><font size="4"><b><a name="p3">@>AB@0=AB25==0O ;>:0;870F8O 8 :>=D83C@0F8O =>>AD5@K</a></b></font></p> <p><dd><div align="left">;O CAB0=>2;5=8O ?@>AB@0=AB25==>3> <5AB>=0E>645=8O =>>AD5@K =5>1E>48<> <KA;5==> ?@>A;54>20BL ?> 2A59 8725AB=>9 ?@>AB@0=AB25==>9 48@5:B>@88 A25@EC 4>=87C 8 >?@545;8BL ?>;>65=85 =>>AD5@K, 8A?>;L7CO ?@8=F8? <0B@5H:8 (<5=LH55 2=CB@8 1>;LH53>).</div> <dd><div align="left">"0:8< >1@07><, A;54CO 2=CB@L ?> F5?>G:5: <b><i>8@</i></b> (2A5 <KA;8<>5 15A:>=5G=>5 ?@>AB@0=AB2>, :0:>5 B>;L:> <>65B ?@54AB028BL A515 G5;>25G5A:>5 2>>1@065=85) <img src="../../images/symm18.gif" height="15" width="19" border="0"> =0H0 <b><i>A5;5==0O</i></b> (ACI5AB2CNB 25@A88, GB> >=0 =5 >4=0) <img src="../../images/symm18.gif" height="15" width="19" border="0"> <b><i>5B030;0:B8:0</i></b> (>1>7@8<0O G0ABL A5;5==>9) <img src="../../images/symm18.gif" height="15" width="19" border="0"> =0H0 <b><i>0;0:B8:0</i></b> (;5G=K9 ?CBL) <img src="../../images/symm18.gif" height="15" width="19" border="0"> =0H0 <b><i>725740</i></b> (!>;=F5) 8 2A5 B>, GB> 55 >:@C605B, B.5. !>;=5G=0O A8AB5<0 <img src="../../images/symm18.gif" height="15" width="19" border="0"> =0H0 <b><i>?;0=5B0</i></b> (5<;O) <img src="../../images/symm18.gif" height="15" width="19" border="0"> <b><i>35>AD5@0</i></b> (?>25@E=>ABL 5<;8) <img src="../../images/symm18.gif" height="15" width="19" border="0"> <b><i>18>AD5@0</i></b> (>@30=8G5A:89 <8@ 5<;8, 2:;NG0O @0AB8B5;L=K9) <img src="../../images/symm18.gif" height="15" width="19" border="0"> <b><i>7>>AD5@0</i></b> (682>B=K9 <8@) <img src="../../images/symm18.gif" height="15" width="19" border="0"> <b><i>3C<0=>AD5@0</i></b> (G5;>25G5AB2> 8 2A5, GB> A =8< A2O70=>) <img src="../../images/symm18.gif" height="15" width="19" border="0"> <b><i>8=B5;;5:B>AD5@0</i></b> (AC<<0B82=0O <>73>20O <0AA0, >?@545;ONI0O ?>B5=F80;L=CN A?>A>1=>ABL G5;>25G5AB20 : <KH;5=8N) <img src="../../images/symm18.gif" height="15" width="19" border="0"> <b><i>8=D>AD5@0</i></b> (25AL >1J5< E@0=OI59AO, ?5@540NI59AO 8 A>740NI59AO A ?><>ILN G5;>25G5A:>3> 8=B5;;5:B0 8=D>@<0F88), 2 8B>35 <K, =0:>=5F, 4>18@05<AO 4> <img src="../../images/symm18.gif" height="15" width="19" border="0"> <b><i>=>>AD5@K</i></b> (AD5@K @07C<0, >1;0AB8 D8:A0F88 >A>7=0==KE A ?><>ILN A>2>:C?=>3> 8=B5;;5:B0 G5;>25G5AB20 ?>=OB89: 8725AB=KE 01A>;NB=KE, 2@5<5==> >B=>A8B5;L=> 01A>;NB=KE 8AB8=) 8 <b><i>=530AD5@K</i></b> (AD5@K =52565AB20 8;8 =574>@>2>3> 2>>1@065=8O, E@0=8;8I0 40;5:8E >B 8AB8= =530?>=OB89, 0 B0:65 ?@>AB> <8D>2 8 @07=>3> @>40 1@540, A>G8=5=89 <5=B0;L=> 1>;L=KE 8;8 =54>>1@07>20==KE ;N459).</div></p> <p> @>AB@0=AB25==0O ;>:0;870F8O 8 :>=D83C@0F8O =>>AD5@K </p> <p> ;O CAB0=>2;5=8O ?@>AB@0=AB25==>3> <5AB>=0E>645=8O =>>AD5@K =5>1E>48<> <KA;5==> ?@>A;54>20BL ?> 2A59 8725AB=>9 ?@>AB@0=AB25==>9 48@5:B>@88 A25@EC 4>=87C 8 >?@545;8BL ?>;>65=85 =>>AD5@K, 8A?>;L7CO ?@8=F8? <0B@5H:8 (<5=LH55 2=CB@8 1>;LH53>). </p> <p> "0:8< >1@07><, A;54CO 2=CB@L ?> F5?>G:5: <span><b><i>8@</i></b> (2AQ <KA;8<>5 15A:>=5G=>5 ?@>AB@0=AB2>, :0:>5 B>;L:> <>65B ?@54AB028BL A515 G5;>25G5A:>5 2>>1@065=85) a =0H0 <b><i>A5;5==0O</i></b> (ACI5AB2CNB 25@A88, GB> >=0 =5 >4=0) a <b><i>5B030;0:B8:0</i></b> (>1>7@8<0O G0ABL A5;5==>9) a =0H0 <b><i>0;0:B8:0</i></b> (;5G=K9 ?CBL) a =0H0 <b><i>725740</i></b> (!>;=F5) 8 2AQ B>, GB> 5Q >:@C605B, B.5. !>;=5G=0O A8AB5<0 a =0H0 <b><i>?;0=5B0</i></b> (5<;O) a <b><i>35>AD5@0</i></b> (?>25@E=>ABL 5<;8) a <b><i>18>AD5@0</i></b> (>@30=8G5A:89 <8@ 5<;8, 2:;NG0O @0AB8B5;L=K9) a <b><i>7>>AD5@0</i></b> (682>B=K9 <8@) a <b><i>3C<0=>AD5@0 </i></b>(G5;>25G5AB2> 8 2AQ, GB> A =8< A2O70=>) a <b><i>8=B5;;5:B>AD5@0</i></b> (AC<<0B82=0O <>73>20O <0AA0, >?@545;ONI0O ?>B5=F80;L=CN A?>A>1=>ABL G5;>25G5AB20 : <KH;5=8N) a<b><i> 8=D>AD5@0</i></b> (25AL >1JQ< E@0=OI59AO, ?5@540NI59AO 8 A>740NI59AO A ?><>ILN G5;>25G5A:>3> 8=B5;;5:B0 8=D>@<0F88), 2 8B>35 <K, =0:>=5F, 4>18@05<AO 4> a <b><i>=>>AD5@K</i></b> (AD5@K @07C<0, >1;0AB8 D8:A0F88 >A>7=0==KE A ?><>ILN A>2>:C?=>3> 8=B5;;5:B0 G5;>25G5AB20 ?>=OB89: 8725AB=KE 01A>;NB=KE, 2@5<5==> >B=>A8B5;L=> 01A>;NB=KE 8AB8=) 8 <b><i>=530AD5@K</i></b> (AD5@K =52565AB20 8;8 =574>@>2>3> 2>>1@065=8O, E@0=8;8I0 40;5:8E >B 8AB8= =530?>=OB89, 0 B0:65 ?@>AB> <8D>2 8 @07=>3> @>40 1@540, A>G8=5=89 <5=B0;L=> 1>;L=KE 8;8 =54>>1@07>20==KE ;N459). </p> <p> 0@>645=85 ?5@2KE ?@>1;5A:>2 =>>AD5@K ?@>87>H;> >:>;> 100 000 ;5B B><C =0704, B.5. ?@8 ?5@5E>45 G5;>25:0 2 ?@>F5AA5 M2>;NF88 A C@>2=O &laquo;Homo erectus&raquo; (&laquo;'5;>25: ?@O<>AB>OI89&raquo;) =0 C@>25=L &laquo;Homo sapiens&raquo; (&laquo;'5;>25: @07C<=K9&raquo;). -B0 >BAK;:0 2> 2@5<5=8 =5A:>;L:> CA;>2=0, ?>A:>;L:C 8 A59G0A =5 2A5 ?@O<>AB>OI85 G5;>25:>?>4>1=K5 @07C<=K. "5< =5 <5=55, >A>15==> 0:B82=>5 @0728B85 =>>AD5@K =01;N405BAO 2AQ-B0:8 2 =0H5 2@5<O, 2 ?5@8>4 40;L=59H59 M2>;NF88 G5;>25:0 ?> C@>2=N &laquo;Homo sapiens sapiens&raquo;. </p> <p> ! <><5=B0 70@>645=8O =>>AD5@K 2A5 ?>;CG5==K5 G5;>25:>< 7=0=8O (?>=OB8O, 8AB8=K, ?@54AB02;5=8O > =530?>=OB8OE) D8:A8@CNBAO ?@0:B8G5A:8 ;8HL 42C<O A?>A>10<8: >@30=8G5A:8< ?CB5< (B.5. MB> >?5@0B82=0O ?0<OBL 45OB5;L=>9 G0AB8 682CI53> >G5@54=>3> ?>:>;5=8O G5;>25G5AB20) 8 =5>@30=8G5A:8< (2A5 ?@>G85 D>@<K A>E@0=5=8O ?>;57=KE 7=0=89 G5;>25G5AB20). </p> <p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p> <p> 57CA;>2=>, 25;8G09H8< B>;G:>< 2 @0728B88 =>>AD5@K ?>A;C68;> 87>1@5B5=85 8 H8@>:>5 8A?>;L7>20=85 4;O E@0=5=8O 8 @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O 7=0=89 :=83>?5G0B0=8O, ?@8<5=O5<>3> 4;O MB8E F5;59 4> ?>A;54=53> 2@5<5=8.  :=830E <>6=> 4>2>;L=> 4QH52> @07<5I0BL 7=0G8B5;L=K5 >1J5<K A8AB5<0B878@>20==KE AC645=89 > ?>=OB8OE, A :>B>@K<8 <>65B >7=0:><8BLAO 1>;LH>5 :>;8G5AB2> ;N459. </p> <p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laquo;>1CG5=85&raquo;, <0@38=0;L=>5 8A:CAAB2>). </p> <p> AB8==K5 =>@<K 3@0640=A:>3> ?>2545=8O 8 4@C3>9 >1I5AB25==>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 D8:A8@CNBAO 2 :>=AB8BCF8OE, AC451=>- 8 ?@>F5AAC0;L=>-?@02>2KE, 3@0640=A:8E, E>7O9AB25==KE 8 ?@>G8E :>45:A0E, 2 =>@<0B820E, ?@028;0E 8 8=AB@C:F8OE. @8 =5>1E>48<>AB8 MB8 8AB8=K CB>G=O5B AC451=>-0@18B@06=0O A8AB5<0 2?;>BL 4> >=AB8BCF8>==KE 8 564C=0@>4=KE AC4>2, O2;ONI0OAO 206=K< D@03<5=B>< =>>AD5@K, 459AB2CNI85 2;0AB=K5 AB@C:BC@K. </p> <p> @5E>4OI85 8AB8=K :064>4=52=KE B5:CI8E A>1KB89 8 O2;5=89 =0< D8:A8@CNB 6C@=0;8ABK, @07=>>1@07=K5 !, =0 :>B>@KE ?@5645 2A53> ;568B DC=:F8O ?@02482>3> >B>1@065=8O 87<5=5=8O A><span><b>1KB89=>3></b> D>=0 ?> E>4C 42865=8O 2> 2@5<5=8 B>G:8 <i>:BC0;L=>9 459AB28B5;L=>AB8</i>, A>>B=>AO A MB8< E>4>< O2;5=85 =>2KE A>1KB89 8 O2;5=89, @8ACO B5< A0<K< <5=ONI89AO ?>@B@5B A>2@5<5==>AB8. <5==> ?>MB><C 8E @5?>@B068, A>>1I5=8O 8 :><<5=B0@88 4>;6=K 1KBL ?@02482K<8, =5?@5427OBK<8, @07=>AB>@>==8<8, =0 2KA>:>< ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>< C@>2=5, >B25G0NI8<8 D8;>A>DA:><C ?>=8<0=8N @0728B8O A>>B25BAB2CNI8E AD5@ 1KB8O. </p> <p>  8<5==> B0:>3> @>40 8=D>@<0F88 >1 :BC0;L=>9 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 =5 E20B05B A59G0A <=>38<, :0: 1K; ;8HQ= 5Q C A51O =0 >AB@>25 >18=7>= @C7>, A8;L=> AB@040O >B MB>3>. 5?@024820O, ?@5427OB0O 8=D>@<0F8O (4578=D>@<0F8O) ?@5>1@07C5B ! 2 ! (A@54AB20 <0AA>2>9 4578=D>@<0F88). </p> <p> >A;54=8< <>I=K< 8<?C;LA>< : C<=>65=8N, E@0=5=8N 8 @0A?@>AB@0=5=8N ?>78B82=KE G5;>25G5A:8E 7=0=89 AB0;>, :0: 8725AB=>, ?>O2;5=85 8 8A?>;L7>20=85 ?5@A>=0;L=KE :><?LNB5@>2, >1J548=5=85 8E 2 A5B8, => ?@5645 2A53> A>740=85 8 @0728B85 3;>10;L=>9 :><?LNB5@=>9 A5B8 =B5@=5B. -?>E0 MB>3> :@C?=59H53>, <>I=59H53> 8 206=59H53> D@03<5=B0 =>>AD5@K =0G0;0AL =5402=>, => A;54C5B >6840BL, GB> 2 1;8609H55 2@5<O >= 709<5B 2 A8AB5<5 =>>AD5@K 4><8=8@CNI55 ?>;>65=85. </p> <p>  MB>9 A2O78 <>6=> A<5;> CB25@640BL, GB> A ?>O2;5=85< =B5@=5B0 =>>AD5@0 2ABC?8;0 2 =>2CN 25AL<0 206=CN D07C A2>53> @0728B8O, ?@8 :>B>@>9 2>A?@>872545=85 8 @0A?@>AB@0=5=85 ?@81;860NI8EAO : 01A>;NBC 8AB8= 1C45B ?@8>1@5B0BL 2AQ 1>;55 H8@>:85 <0AHB01K 8 ?@>8AE>48BL =0 1>;55 2KA>:>< 8 :0G5AB25==>< B5E=8G5A:>< C@>2=5, B.5. 70 1>;55 :>@>B:85 >B@57:8 2@5<5=8 8AB8=0<8 1C45B >2;04520BL A <8=8<0;L=K<8 CA8;8O<8 2AQ 1>;55 7=0G8<0O G0ABL '5;>25G5AB20.  B> 65 2@5<O =B5@=5B =5 <5=55 0:B82=> AB0; 8A?>;L7>20BLAO 8 ?@54AB028B5;O<8 =530AD5@K. </p> <p> !B@5<;5=85 : ?>AB865=8N ?@545;L=> ?>7=0==KE 01A>;NB=KE 8AB8=, @02=> :0: 8 35=5@0F8O, 0@E820F8O, 8 @0A?@>AB@0=5=85 2A53> <=>3>>1@078O ?>78B82=KE 7=0=89, >ACI5AB2;O5<K5 2 =>>AD5@5, =5 O2;ONBAO A0<>F5;LN, 0 =0?@02;5=K =0 ?>445@60=85 25G=>3> ?@>F5AA0 - 2A5>1I53> "/, 157 G53> =8 0B5@8O, =8 G5;>25G5AB2> 2 F5;><, 0 2 8B>35 =8 :064K9 G5;>25: 2 >B45;L=>AB8 ACI5AB2>20BL, 0 A:>@55 ",, =5 <>3CB. <5AB5 A B5< =>>AD5@0 2 =0AB>OI55 2@5<O 70B@038205B AB>;L H8@>:89 A?5:B@ 7=0=89, 2:;NG0O B0:85 A?5F8D8G5A:85, :0: 35>;>38O, 0@E8B5:BC@0, 682>?8AL, 02B><>18;5AB@>5=85, <C7K:0;L=K5 ?@>872545=8O, 0280AB@>5=85, ?>G2>2545=85, D8;>;>38O 8 B.4., :>B>@K5 >4=><C G5;>25:C ?>7=0BL 8 @0728BL ?@>AB> D878G5A:8 =52>7<>6=>, 0 ?>4G0A 8 =5B 1>;LH>9 =5>1E>48<>AB8. >MB><C C7:> A?5F80;878@>20==K5, A?5F8D8G5A:85 7=0=8O ?>7=0NB B>;L:> A?5F80;8ABK 8 ;N18B5;8. </p> <p>  B> 65 2@5<O 2 =>>AD5@5, :0: <K CAB0=>28;8, ACI5AB2C5B >1H8@=K9 @0745; ?>7=0=89, 7=0BL :>B>@K5 >1O70= :064K9 G5;>25:, 2A5 3@0640=5 3>AC40@AB20, 2A5 68B5;8 5<;8. -B> '!"+ # , B.5. C=8D8F8@>20==K5 >1I85 7=0=8O, :0A0NI85AO >A>15==>AB59 AB0=>2;5=8O 8 @0728B8O G5;>25:0 :0: 682>3> >@30=87<0, =>, ?@5645 2A53>, :0: ;8G=>AB8, B.5. A2545=8O > 53> <5=B0;8B5B5 (?A8E8:5, 8=B5;;5:B5 8 A>7=0=88), > 53> A?>A>1=>AB8 8 AB5?5=8 ?@83>4=>AB8 68BL 2 >1I5AB25, A>2@5<5==K5 ?@54AB02;5=8O >1 >:@C60NI5< =0A <8@5, >1 >1I5G5;>25G5A:>< C=8D8F8@>20==>< =01>@5 F5==>AB59 8 ?>@>:>2, > 2A5>1I8E =>@<0E 8 ?@028;0E ?>2545=8O. </p> <p> E ?KB0NBAO ?5@540BL 8=48284C @>48B5;8, 2 45BA:>< A04C, 2 H:>;5, =0 ?5@2KE :C@A0E C=825@A8B5B>2 8 ?@>G8E #>2, 2 <C75OE 8 =0 2KAB02:0E. 08=B5@5A>20= 2 8E ?>;CG5=88 8 A0< 8=48284, ?>A:>;L:C, =5 ?>;CG82 8E 87 =>>AD5@K, >= >G5=L A:>@> ?>4?0405B ?>4 2;8O=85 =530AD5@K, 02B><0B8G5A:8 8A:;NG0O A51O 87 @O4>2 >B25G0NI8E A>2@5<5==K< B@51>20=8O< ;N459, B5< A0<K< ;8H0OAL 8;8, =0>1>@>B, =5 ?>;CG0O 720=85 '. 1JQ< MB>3> #, ?>AB>O==> >1=>2;O5<K9 8 4>?>;=O5<K9, 2A5 ;N48 4>;6=K =5 B>;L:> 7=0BL =0 C@>2=5 ?@545;L=> ?>7=0==KE 01A>;NB=KE 8AB8=, B.5. 2=8<0B5;L=> A;548BL 70 2A5<8 87<5=5=8O<8, => 8 >48=0:>2> ?>=8<0BL 8E, >G8I0BL >B <CA>@=KE 8 =530?>=OB89 8 AB@>8BL =0 8E 1075 =5 B>;L:> A>1AB25==K5 AC645=8O, => 8 A2>Q ?>2545=85, 8 ?@5645 2A53> A2>Q ?>2545=85 2 >1I5AB25. </p> <p> >72@0I0OAL : 2>?@>AC <8@>?>=8<0=8O, 1C45< 8AE>48BL 87 B>3>, GB> 2 <8@5 ACI5AB2C5B 1>;55 400 B58AB8G5A:8E 25@A89 8 ;8HL >4=0 0B58AB8G5A:0O (>B D@0=F. <span><i>atheisme</i> - 1571>685, >B 3@5G. <i>a</i> - >B@8F0=85 8 <i>theos</i> - 1>3), 8 :0640O 87 25@A89 ?KB05BAO ?>-A2>5<C >1JOA=8BL, :0: CAB@>5= <8@. >MB><C ?>4E>48BL : 40==><C 2>?@>AC A;54C5B AB@>3> A =0CG=>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O, A8AB5<=>, 8A?>;L7CO H:0;C &laquo;?>AB865=8O 8AB8=K&raquo;, B.5. @0AA<0B@820O, :0: G5;>25G5AB2>, 2=8:0O 2 CAB@>9AB2> <8@0, ?@5>4>;520;> ?>A;54>20B5;L=> ?>;>65==K5 4 D07K: <b>0) <i>=52545=85</i></b> > ?@54<5B5 ?>=OB8O a <b>1) <i>?5@2>5 ?@54AB02;5=85</i></b> > ?@54<5B5 ?>=OB8O a <b>2)</b> 1>;55 C3;C1;5==K5 7=0=8O (<b><i>>B=>A8B5;L=0O 8AB8=0</i></b>) a <b>3)</b> ?>;=K5 7=0=8O > ACB8 ?>=OB8O (<b><i>01A>;NB=0O 8AB8=0</i></b>). </p> <p> AE>4O 87 MB>3>, 7=0=8O > <8@>740=88 2 B5G5=85 ?>A;54=8E BKAOG5;5B89 8 25:>2 @0728B8O G5;>25G5AB20 ?@5B5@?5;8 A;54CNI85 87<5=5=8O: </p> <p> <span><u>>;=>5 =52545=85</u>. B=>A8BAO : ?5@8>4C, :>340 ?5@2>1KB=K5 ;N48 3>=O;8AL 70 <0<>=B0<8 8 2>?@>A > B><, :0: CAB@>5= <8@, 8E A>2A5< =5 70=8<0;. -B> ?5@8>4 B0: =07K205<>3> <i>?@8<8B82=>3> 0B587<0</i>. </p> <p> <span><u>5@2>5 ?@54AB02;5=85</u> > ?@54<5B5. #AB@>9AB2> <8@0 AB0;> ?>=8<0BLAO 2 @07=KE 20@80=B0E :0: 75<=>9 48A: =0 B@QE A;>=0E, :8B0E 8 B.?. <8DK 8 ;535=4K. ;O MB>3> ?5@8>40 E0@0:B5@=> <=>3>1>685 (1>3 A>;=F0, 1>3 2>4K, 1>3 28=0, 1>3 2>9=K, 1>3 ;N128 8 B.4.) 8 <=>65AB25==>ABL @5;8389, 8725AB=KE :0: O7KG5A:85. <i>/7KG5A:85 25@>20=8O</i> O28;8AL H03>< 2?5@Q4 ?> A@02=5=8N A ?5@8>4>< B58AB8G5A:>3> =52565AB20. </p> <p> $070 <span><u>>B=>A8B5;L=>9 8AB8=K</u> - <i>?@>A25IQ==>5 25@>20=85</i>. #AB@>9AB2> <8@0, A>740==>3> =5:8< <8D8G5A:8< <b><i>B2>@F><</i></b> O:>1K 70 7 4=59, ?@8>1@5;> 2=0G0;5 35>F5=B@8G5A:CN <>45;L (02B>@ - B>;5<59, I 25: =.M.), 0 70B5< 1;03>40@O >?5@=8:C, 0;8;5N 8 5?;5@C - 35;8>F5=B@8G5A:CN (XV-XVII 22.), B.5. AB0;> @072820BLAO 8 ?>AB5?5==> 1@0BL 25@E GC2AB2> @50;L=>AB8, 3;C1>:8E ;>38G5A:8E AC645=89. "0: 8 7=0=8O > G5;>25:5, A>B2>@5==>< &laquo;A>740B5;5<&raquo; B> ;8 87 @51@0, B> ;8 87 G53>-B> 5IQ, AB0;8 0:B82=> ?>?>;=OBLAO >B:@KB8O<8 2 >1;0AB8 <548F8=K, 0 70B5< 8 35=5B8:8. =B>;>38G5A:0O <>45;L AB@>5=8O <8@0 AB0;0 78648BLAO =0 42CE 3;>10;L=KE :0B53>@8OE: <i>?@>AB@0=AB25 - 2@5<5=8</i>. </p> <p> >A;54=59 D075 7=0=8O - <span><u>01A>;NB=>9 8AB8=5</u> - A>>B25BAB2C5B <b><i>?@>A25IQ==K9 0B587<</i></b>. "5>@8O > <8@>740=88, A>>B25BAB2CNI0O 5<C, >B25@305B ;N1>3> 2840 &laquo;B2>@F>2&raquo; 8 >A=>2K205BAO B>;L:> =0 >1J5:B82=KE 70:>=0E @0728B8O <0B5@88, 2:;NG0O B5>@8N 0@28=0. =B>;>38G5A:0O <>45;L @50;L=>9 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 ?@8>1@5B05B 1>;55 ?>;=K9 8 70:>=G5==K9 284 8 1078@C5BAO C65 =0 42865=88 2 B@QE 3;>10;L=KE :0B53>@8OE: 2 <i>?@>AB@0=AB25 - 2@5<5=8 - :0G5AB25</i>. A5;5==0O ?>;CG05B 2AQ 1>;55 ?>4@>1=>5 D878G5A:>5 >?8A0=85, 70B@03820NI55 F8:;K ACI5AB2>20=8O @07;8G=KE B8?>2 72Q74 8 GQ@=KE 4K@. 0@>645=85 A5;5==>9 2<5AB> 20@80=B0 &laquo;>;LH>3> 27@K20&raquo; 2AQ 1>;55 BO3>B55B : B5>@88 5Q M2>;NF8>==>3> @0728B8O. </p> <p> "0:8< >1@07><, 1;03>40@O =0C:5 8 ?@>A25I5=8N, B.5. ?>A;54>20B5;L=><C ?>7=0=8N ;>38G5A:8 >1>A=>20==KE 8AB8= 2 >1;0AB8 B5>@5B8G5A:>3> >?8A0=8O 2=5H=53> <8@0, G5;>25: <>65B 4>AB83=CBL ?>4;8==>3> ?@>7@5=8O 8 ?5@59B8 >B ;>6=>3> <8@>>ICI5=8O : ?>4;8==><C <8@>?>=8<0=8N. </p> <p> B0:, 2 =0AB>OI55 2@5<O @07;8G0NB 5 C@>2=59 <0B5@80;L=>3> <8@0: 38?><8@, <8:@><8@, <0:@><8@, <530<8@ 8 38?5@<8@. < A>>B25BAB2CNB ?@>AB@0=AB25==K5 25;8G8=K >B 10<span><sup> -33</sup> A< 4> 10<sup>28 </sup>A<, B.5. 8AA;54C5<K9 A>2@5<5==>9 =0C:>9 <8@ >E20BK205B @0AAB>O=8O 2 480?07>=5 1>;55 G5< 60 ?>@O4:>2.  MB8E @0<:0E <8:@><8@ 2K45;O5BAO :0: >1J5:B :20=B>2>9 <5E0=8:8, <0:@><8@ - :0: >1J5:B :;0AA8G5A:>9 <5E0=8:8, <530<8@ - :0: >1J5:B @5;OB828ABA:>9 <5E0=8:8. </p> <p>  B> 65 2@5<O =5 ACI5AB2C5B 65AB:>9 3@0=8FK, >4=>7=0G=> @0745;ONI59 <8:@>-, <0:@>- 8 <530<8@K. @8 =5A><=5==>< :0G5AB25==>< @07;8G88 <564C A>1>9 >=8 B5A=> 2708<>A2O70=K ?@8=04;56=>ABLN : 548=>9 <0B5@80;L=>9 ?@8@>45 8 ?>42;0AB=>ABLN 548=K< 70:>=0< 480;5:B8:8 <0B5@88. "0:, =0?@8<5@, =0H0 5<;O ?@54AB02;O5B <0:@><8@, => 2 :0G5AB25 >4=>9 87 ?;0=5B !>;=5G=>9 A8AB5<K >=0 >4=>2@5<5==> 2KABC?05B 8 :0: M;5<5=B <530<8@0. </p> <p>  !>;=5G=CN A8AB5<C 2E>4OB 9 ?;0=5B, 8E A?CB=8:8, A2KH5 100 BKA. 0AB5@>84>2, <=>65AB2> :><5B 8 <5B5>@8B=KE B5;. 0AAB>O=85 >B !>;=F0 4> =081>;55 C40;5==>9 ?;0=5BK ;CB>=0 6 <;@4. :<. ;0=5BK 75<=>9 3@C??K - 5@:C@89, 5=5@0, 5<;O 8 0@A - A@02=8B5;L=> =525;8:8 8 A>AB>OB 87 ?;>B=>3> 25I5AB20. .?8B5@, !0BC@=, #@0=, 5?BC= 8 ;CB>= >B=>AOBAO : 3830=B0<, >=8 3>@074> <0AA82=55, => 2 8E A>AB02 2E>4OB ;Q3:85 25I5AB20 8 ?>MB><C 8E ?;>B=>ABL <5=LH5. <span> >B;8G85 >B 0B<>A-D5@ ?;0=5B 75<=>9 3@C??K, GQB:> >B45;Q==KE >B B2Q@4>9 ?>-25@E=>AB8, 0B<>AD5@=K5 307K ?;0=5B-3830=B>2 ?>AB5?5==> ?5@5-E>4OB 2 :>=45=A8@>20==>5 A>AB>O=85, 2 &laquo;B5;>&raquo; A0<8E ?;0=5B. # =8E =5B ?@82KG=>9 =0< B25@4>9 8;8 684:>9 ?>25@E=>AB8. </p> <p> E>4OI85 2 !>;=5G=CN A8AB5<C<span><b> </b>0AB5@>84K ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 <0;K5 ?;0=5BK. %>BO 8E <=>3>, => AC<<0@=0O 8E <0AA0 >:07K205BAO <5=LH5 0,001 <0AAK 5<;8. !0<K9 :@C?=K9 0AB5-@>84 - ?;0=5B0 &5@5@0 - 8<55B ?>?5@5G=8: >:>;> 1000 :<. !B0;:820OAL 4@C3 A 4@C3><, 0AB5@>84K 4@>1OBAO =0 <5B5>@8BK. </p> <p> !2>5>1@07=K<8 >1J5:B0<8 !>;=5G=>9 A8AB5<K O2;ONBAO :><5BK<span><b><i>.</i></b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p> <p> 0AAK 72Q74 A>AB02;ONB >B 0,1 4> 50 A>;=5G=KE <0AA. 07-<5@K 480<5B@>2 72Q74 @07;8G0NBAO >G5=L A8;L=> - >B 10-20 :< (=59B@>==K5 72Q74K) 4> A>B5= <8;;8>=>2 :8;><5B@>2 (:@0A-=K5 A25@E3830=BK). ;>B=>AB8 25I5AB20 72Q74 :>;51;NBAO >B 1 3/A<<span><sup>3</sup> 4> 10<sup>14</sup> 3/A<<sup>3</sup> (=59B@>==K5 72Q74K). !25B8<>AB8 72574 :>;51;NBAO >B 0,001 4> 1 <;=. A>;=5G=>9 A25B8<>AB8, B.5. @07;8-G0NBAO =0 9 ?>@O4:>2 (2 <8;;80@4 @07). B<>AD5@0 72Q74 =0 98% A>AB>8B 87 2>4>@>40 8 35;8O. </p> <p> 2Q74K >1@07CNB<span><b> </b>30;0:B8:8<b><i>,</i></b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p> <p>  A0<K9 1>;LH>9 >1J5:B 2 <8@5, 2:;NG0NI89 2A5 8725AB-=K5 A>2@5<5==>9 =0C:5, - MB> 5B030;0:B8:0. 07<5@K 55 15-20 <;@4. A25B>2KE ;5B, 0 2>7@0AB 15-20 <;@4. ;5B. "0:>2 A>AB02 <530<8@0. </p> <p> 0 ?@>BO65=88 %%-3> AB>;5B8O 1K;0 @07@01>B0=0 :>=F5?F8O, A>3;0A=> :>B>@>9 5B030;0:B8:0 =0E>48BAO 2 ?@>F5AA5 ?>AB>O==>3> @0AH8@5=8O, @071530=8O 30;0:B8: >B :0:>3>-B> ?5@28G=>3> F5=B@0, 2 :>B>@>< O:>1K 8 70@>48;0AL =0H0 A5;5==0O. "5>@8O @0AH8@ONI59AO A5;5==>9 1K;0 >A=>20=0 =0 8AB>;:>20=88 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=> 70D8:A8@>20==>3> :@0A=>3> A<5I5=8O A?5:B@0;L=KE ;8=89 30;0:B8: :0: A;54AB28O MDD5:B0 >??;5@0, >1JOA=ONI53> :@0A=>5 A<5I5=85 @071530=85< 30;0:B8:. </p> <p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p> <p> -2>;NF8N ?@5B5@?520NB 2A5 :>A<8G5A:85 >1J5:BK - 72Q7-4K, ?;0=5BK, 30;0:B8:8. "0:, >1KG=K5 72Q7-4K 2 E>45 M2>;NF8>==KE 87<5=5=89 ?@52@0I0NBAO 2 B0: =0-7K205<K5 &laquo;15;K5 :0@;8:8&raquo;, &laquo;=59B@>==K5 72Q74K&raquo; 8 &laquo;GQ@=K5 4K@K&raquo;. </p> <p> &laquo;5;K9 :0@;8:&raquo; - MB> M;5:B@>==0O ?>AB725740, >1-@07CNI0OAO 2 B>< A;CG05, :>340 725740 =0 ?>A;54=59 AB0488 A2>59 M2>;NF88 8<55B <0AAC <5=LHCN 1,2 A>;=5G=>9 <0AAK. @52@0I5=85 ?@>8AE>48B ?CBQ< <54;5==>3> A60B8O 72574K, :>B>@0O ?@>4>;605B A25B8BL C65 =5 70 AGQB O45@=KE @50:F89, 0 2 @57C;LB0B5 >A2>1>640NI59AO 2 ?@>F5AA5 A60B8O 3@028B0F8->==>9 M=5@388. 80<5B@ &laquo;15;>3> :0@;8:0&raquo; @025= 480<5B@C =0-H59 5<;8, B5<?5@0BC@0 4>AB8305B >:>;> <8;;80@40 3@04CA>2, 0 ?;>B=>ABL - 10 B/A<<span><sup>3</sup> - 2 A>B=8 BKAOG @07 1>;LH5 75<=>9 ?;>B=>AB8. "0:CN ?;>B=>ABL <>6=> ?>;CG8BL, CB@0<1>202 3@C-7>2>9 02B><>18;L 2 >1JQ< =0?Q@AB:0.  B5G5=85 1 <;@4. ;5B &laquo;15;K9 :0@;8:&raquo; <54;5==> >ABK205B, ?@52@0I0OAL 2 &laquo;GQ@=K9 :0@;8:&raquo; - =8G53> =5 87;CG0NI89 E>;>4=K9 &laquo;B@C?&raquo; 72574K. </p> <p> 59B@>==K5 72Q74K 2>7=8:0NB =0 70:;NG8B5;L=>9 AB0488 M2>;NF88 72Q74, >1;040NI8E <0AA>9 >B 1,2 4> 2 A>;=5G=KE <0AA.  MB>< A;CG05 =0 ?@54:>=5G=>< MB0?5 ?@>8AE>48B >G5=L 1KAB-@>5 A60B85 72574K, 2 E>45 :>B>@>3> 2 =0@C6=KE 5Q A;>OE =0G8-=05BAO 1C@=K9 ?@>F5AA O45@=KE @50:F89, 2 :>B>@K5 2ABC?0NB >AB0B:8 O45@=>3> 25I5AB20 72574K. @8 MB>< 2K45;O5BAO B0: <=>3> M=5@388, GB> ?@>8AE>48B 27@K2 A @071@>A>< =0@C6=>3> A;>O 72574K. =CB@5==85 65 5Q >1;0AB8 AB@5<8B5;L=> A68<0-NBAO. AB0B>: 72574K C<5=LH05BAO 4> @07<5@>2 2 20-30 :<, 0 A@54=OO 55 ?;>B=>ABL 2>7@0AB05B 4> 100 <;=. B/A<<span><sup>3</sup>, GB>, 8A-?>;L7CO ?@56=55 A@02=5=85, @02=>7=0G=> CB@0<1>2:5 2 =0?Q@A-B>: <8;;8>=0 3@C7>2KE 02B><>18;59. 1@07CNI89AO >1J5:B 8 ?>;CG8; =0720=85 &laquo;=59B@>==0O 725740&raquo;. =0 A>AB>8B 87 ?@>B>-=>2 8 =59B@>=>2, A8;K 3@028B0F88 @07@CH8;8 2 =59 A;>6=K5 O4@0 8 25I5AB2> A=>20 AB0;> A>AB>OBL 87 >B45;L=KE M;5<5=B0@-=KE G0AB8F. B:@KBK5 2 1967 3. ?C;LA0@K (8AB>G=8:8 ?C;LA8-@CNI53>, ?5@8>48G5A:8 87<5=ONI53>AO 8<?C;LA=>3> 87;CG5-=8O) :0: @07 8 O2;ONBAO =0<03=8G5==K<8 2@0I0NI8<8AO =59B-@>==K<8 72Q740<8. </p> <p>  A;CG05 65, 5A;8 <0AA0 ?>AB72574K (72574K =0 70:;NG8-B5;L=>9 AB0488 A2>53> ACI5AB2>20=8O) ?@52KA8B 2 A>;=5G=K5 <0AAK, >=0 4>;6=0 ?@52@0B8BLAO 2 &laquo;GQ@=CN 4K@C&raquo; A @048CA>< 5-10 :<. 'Q@=K5 4K@K 8<5NB 8 4@C385 =0720=8O: &laquo;70ABK2H0O 725740&raquo;, &laquo;3@028B0F8>==0O <>38;0&raquo;, &laquo;:>;;0?A0@&raquo;, &laquo;D;C:BC0@&raquo;, &laquo;>3>=&raquo;. @>AB@0=AB2> GQ@=>9 4K@K :0: 1K &laquo;2K@20=>&raquo; 87 ?@>-AB@0=AB20 5B030;0:B8:8. 5I5AB2> 8 87;CG5=85 ?@>20;820NBAO 2 =5Q 8 =5 <>3CB 2K9B8 >1@0B=>. 0=LH5 &laquo;GQ@=K5 4K@K&raquo; AG8B0;8AL =5=01;N405<K<8. "5?5@L 65 =0C:0 @0A?>;0305B D0:B0<8, :>B>@K5 4>AB0B>G=> C1548B5;L-=> A2845B5;LAB2CNB >1 8E ACI5AB2>20=88. =8 >B>645AB2;ONB-AO A 8AB>G=8:0<8 A8;L=>3> @5=B35=>2A:>3> 87;CG5=8O. </p> <p> >2>@O > &laquo;=0G0;5 2@5-<5=8&raquo;, &laquo;@>645=88 A5;5==>9&raquo;, =5>1E>48<> ?><=8BL > 7=0G8B5;L-=>9 4>;8 CA;>2=>AB8, >1@07=>AB8 ?>4>1=KE 2K@065=89. @>AB@0=AB25==>-2@5<5==K5 >B=>H5=8O, A2>9AB25==K5 A>2@5<5=-=><C A>AB>O=8N <8@0, =5 <>3CB 1KBL ?@O<> 8 >4=>7=0G=> 8A?>;L7>20=K 4;O >?8A0=8O B0:8E A>AB>O=89 <0B5@88, A2>9AB20 :>B>@KE 5I5 =5 8725AB=K (8;8 ?;>E> 8725AB=K). </p> <p> "5>;>38 8 @5;838>7=> =0AB@>5==K5 CGQ=K5 =0G0;8 8A?>;L-7>20BL B5>@8N &laquo;@0AH8@ONI59AO A5;5==>9&raquo; 4;O >1>A=>20=8O :@50F8>=87<0, A25@EJ5AB5AB25==>3> B2>@5=8O <8@0 >3><. > ?>:070B5;L=>, GB> >48= 87 A>740B5;59 MB>9 B5>@88 . 5<5B@, 1C4CG8 8 CGQ=K<, 8 0110B><, @5;838>7=K< 45OB5;5<, 2KABC-?8; ?@>B82 ?>4>1=KE B@0:B>2>:. = AG8B05B, GB> 40==0O B5>-@8O =5 8<55B =8:0:>3> >B=>H5=8O : 2>?@>AC > ACI5AB2>20=88 >30, ?>A:>;L:C 1KB85 >30, ?> 53> <=5=8N, 2>>1I5 =0E>48B-AO 70 ?@545;0<8 2AO:>3> 2>7<>6=>3> >?KB0, 70 @0<:0<8 2>7<>6=>AB59 G5;>25G5A:>3> ?>7=0=8O. 0B5@88, 87 :>B>@>9 A>-AB>8B =01;N405<0O A5;5==0O, =0H0 5B030;0:B8:0, ?@54H5-AB2>20;8 4@C385 A>AB>O=8O <0B5@88.  A59G0A, ?> <=5=8N @O40 CGQ=KE, 5B030;0:B8:0 =5 8AG5@?K205B 2A53> <8@0, 1KB8O 2>->1I5. >MB><C 2>7=8:=>25=85 =0H59 5B030;0:B8:8 =5 >7=0-G05B >1@07>20=8O 2A59 A5;5==>9, 5Q =0G0;> =5 O2;O5BAO 01A>-;NB=K< :>A<>;>38G5A:8< &laquo;=0G0;><&raquo;. </p> <p> ! 402=8E 2@5<5= 8725AB=>, GB> 87 =8G53> =5GB> =5 2>7=8:0-5B. N1>9 >1J5:B <>65B 2>7=8:=CBL ;8HL 87 4@C38E >1J5:B>2. 1A>;NB=>9 ?CAB>BK :0: ?>;=>3> >BACBAB28O <0B5@88 =5 ACI5-AB2C5B. A;8 >BACBAB2C5B 25I5AB2>, B> ACI5AB2C5B ?>;5, 5A;8 >BACBAB2C5B ?>;5, B> ACI5AB2C5B 53> D878G5A:89 20:CC<. >4 20:CC<>< A>2@5<5==0O D878:0 ?>=8<05B >A>1>5 A>AB>O=85 <0B5@88, 0 =5 01A>;NB=>5 &laquo;=8GB>&raquo;. 0?@8<5@, 20:CC<>< M;5:B-@><03=8B=>3> ?>;O =07K20NB B0:>5 53> A>AB>O=85, 2 :>B>@>< =5B D>B>=>2. >MB><C, :>340 D878:8 3>2>@OB > 2>7<>6=>AB8 2>7=8:=>25=8O 25I5AB20 87 20:CC<0, MB> =5 7=0G8B, GB> @5GL 84QB > 2>7=8:=>25=88 25I5AB20 87 ?CAB>BK. AB@5G0NI85AO @0AAC645=8O > B><, GB> 2> A5;5==>9 2 :0:CN-B> 548=8FC 2@5-<5=8 O:>1K 87 &laquo;=8G53>&raquo; 2>7=8:05B :0:>5-B> :>;8G5AB2> 25I5-AB20, <>3CB >7=0G0BL ;8HL B>, GB> @5GL 84QB > 2>7=8:=>25=88 8725AB=>3> 25I5AB20 87 :0:>3>-B> 4@C3>3>, 5IQ =5 CAB0=>2;5=-=>3> 2840 <0B5@88. </p> <p> !2>Q 2A5AB>@>==55 2K@065=85 ?@8=F8? =5A>B2>@8<>AB8 8 =5C=8GB>68<>AB8 <0B5@88 8 5Q 0B@81CB>2 =0E>48B 2 D878G5A-:8E 70:>=0E A>E@0=5=8O. 0ABQB G8A;> G0AB=KE 70:>=>2 A>E@0-=5=8O >B45;L=KE E0@0:B5@8AB8: D878G5A:8E D>@< 42865=8O.  =0G0;5<span><b> </b>XX-3> 2. 1K;8 8725AB=K 70:>=K A>E@0=5=8O <0AAK, M=5@-388, M;5:B@8G5A:>3> 70@O40, 8<?C;LA0, <><5=B0 8<?C;LA0. K=5 : =8< ?@81028;8AL 70:>=K A>E@0=5=8O GQB=>AB8, AB@0=-=>AB8, 10@8>==>3> 8 ;5?B>==>3> 70@O4>2 8 4@C385. ! >B:@KB8-5< :064>3> 70:>=0 A>E@0=5=8O =5@07@K2=> A2O70=> ?>O2;5=85 =>2>3> DC=40<5=B0;L=>3> A2>9AB20 <0B5@88. %0@0:B5@=>9 >A>-15==>ABLN 70:>=>2 A>E@0=5=8O O2;O5BAO B>, GB> >=8 <>3CB 2K@060BLAO 2 D>@<5 >3@0=8G5=89 8;8 4065 :0B53>@8G5A:8E 70?@5-B>2, >7=0G0NI8E =52>7<>6=>ABL ?@>B5:0=8O B5E 8;8 8=KE ?@>-F5AA>2 2 >?@545;5==KE CA;>28OE. </p> <p> 5B >A=>20=89 01A>;NB878@>20BL 8 ?>=OB85 &laquo;GQ@=0O 4K@0&raquo;, B>;:>20=85 :>B>@>3> B>65 87<5=O5BAO 8 CB>G=O5BAO. 'Q@=K5 4K@K =5 O2;ONBAO ?>;=>ABLN 70<:=CBK<8 <8@0<8, G5@57 B0: =07K205<K5 3>@;>28=K, >1;040NI85 A8;L=K< M;5:B@><03=8B-=K< ?>;5<, >=8 A2O70=K A 2=5H=8< <8@><. ;O 2=5H=53> =01;N40B5;O >=8 ?@>O2;ONBAO :0: >1J5:BK A >?@545;5==K<8 35><5B@8G5A:8<8 @07<5@0<8, <0AA>9, M;5:B@8G5A:8< 70@O4>< 8 C3;>2K< <><5=B><.  ?@54AB02;5=8OE > GQ@=KE 4K@0E <=>3> 38?>B5B8G5A:>3>, =54>AB0B>G=> ?@>25@5==>3>. >;3> AG8B0;>AL, GB> &laquo;GQ@=K5 4K@K&raquo; - 01A>;NB=> ?>3;>-I0NI85 >1J5:BK, 3@028B0F8O :>B>@KE C45@68205B 4065 A25B>2>5 87;CG5=85. > 2 =0G0;5 70-E 3>4>2 XX-3> 2., :>340 1K;8 ?@8=O-BK 2> 2=8<0=85 :20=B>2K5 MDD5:BK, 2KOA=8;>AL, GB> &laquo;GQ@-=K5 4K@K&raquo; 2>?@5:8 8E =0720=8N 4>;6=K 87;CG0BL 2 >:@C60N-I55 ?@>AB@0=AB2> ?>B>:8 25I5AB20 8 0=B825I5AB20, M;5:B@>-<03=8B=K5 2>;=K, 8A?CI5==K5 28@BC0;L=K<8 G0AB8F0<8, :>-B>@K5 A0<8 ?@8 MB>< &laquo;?>3810NB&raquo; 2 GQ@=>9 4K@5. >:@C3 =8E ?@>8AE>48B :0: 1K &laquo;2A:8?0=85&raquo; 20:CC<0 (>A>1>5 A>AB>O=85 ?>;O), 0 2=5H=5 MB> 2K3;O48B :0: ?>AB5?5==>5 8A?0@5=85 8 ABO3820=85 &laquo;GQ@=>9 4K@K&raquo;. </p> <p> 0: =5B 01A>;NB=>3> =0G0;0, B0: =5B 8 01A>;NB=KE BC?8:>2 @0728B8O. A5 >B=>A8B5;L=> 8 A2O70=> ?@>F5AA0<8 2708<>?@5-2@0I5=8O. 1=0@C6820NBAO ?CB8 40;L=59H53> 2:;NG5=8O 2 15A-:>=5G=K9 <8@>2>9 ?@>F5AA 8 15;KE :0@;8:>2, 8 =59B@>==KE 72574, 8 GQ@=KE 4K@. &laquo;"@C?0<8&raquo; 8E <>6=> AG8B0BL ;8HL ?> >B=>H5=8N : >B45;L=K< >?@545;5==K< 72Q740<, => =5 ?> >B-=>H5=8N :> 2A5<C :>A<>AC. </p> <p> I5 A ?@>H;>3> 25:0 >1AC6405BAO ?@>1;5<0 &laquo;B5?;>2>9 A<5@-B8&raquo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span><b> </b>:>=5G=KE, 70<:=CBKE A8AB5<, =0 2AN 15A:>=5G=CN A5;5==CN (2 A<KA;5 2A53> <8@0 2 F5;><). =0;>38G=> @0AH8@5=85 (8;8 A60B85) :0:>9-;81> G0AB8 A5;5==>9 (=0H59 5B030;0:B8:8, =0?@8<5@) 5ABL B>65 <5AB=K9, :>=5G=K9 MDD5:B 8 53> =5;L7O @0A?@>AB@0=OBL =0 2AN 15A:>=5G-=CN A5;5==CN. </p> <p> B0:, CAB0=>2;5=> >3@><=>5 <=>3>>1@0785 <0B5@80;L=KE >1J5:B>2, ?@54AB02;ONI8E <8:@>-, <0:@>- 8 <530<8@K. > 8AG5@?K20NB ;8 >=8<span><b> </b>2AN ACI5AB2CNICN @50;L=>ABL? ! CGQB>< 8AB>-@88 G5;>25G5A:>3> ?>7=0=8O 8 >1I53> 4CE0 A>2@5<5==>9 =0CG-=>9 :0@B8=K <8@0 =0 MB>B 2>?@>A =0?@0H8205BAO >B@8F0B5;L-=K9 >B25B. =>3>>1@0785 <0B5@88 8 5Q 42865=8O 15A:>=5G=>, ?@8GQ< =5 B>;L:> 2 ?@>AB@0=AB25==>-2@5<5==KE ?0@0<5B@0E, => 8 2 :0G5AB25==KE. @8=F8? :0G5AB25==>9 15A:>=5G=>AB8 ?@8@>4K >7=0G05B ?@87=0=85 =5->3@0=8G5==>3> <=>3>>1@078O AB@C:BC@=>-DC=:F8>=0;L=KE D>@< <0B5@88, @07-;8G0NI8EAO A0<K<8 DC=40<5=B0;L=K<8 70:>=0<8 1KB8O. -B>B ?@8=F8? 8A:;NG05B 2>7<>6=>ABL E>BO 1K 2 ?@545;5 ?@54AB02-;OBL 2A5 >1J5:BK ?> 548=><C >1@07C 8 ?>4>18N.  G0AB=>AB8, A59G0A C65 =8:0: =5;L7O 2KAB@0820BL 2A5 8725AB=K5 >1J5:BK =0C:8 ?> ;8=88 15A?@545;L=>9, => >4=>>1@07=>9 45;8<>AB8 =0 2AQ 1>;55 <5;:85 G0AB8, B0: :0:, =0?@8<5@, 2 D878-:5 M;5<5=B0@=KE G0AB8F ?@82KG=>5 4;O >1KG=>3> <0:@><8@0 A>>B=>H5=85 &laquo;G0ABL <5=LH5 F5;>3>&raquo; >:07K205BAO =525@=K<. </p> <p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p> <p> I5 @8AB>B5;L >B<5G0;, GB> ?5@2K5 D8;>A>DK ?@>AB> 45:;0@8@>20;8 A0<>4286CI89AO E0@0:B5@ ?@54;>65==KE 8<8 ?5@2>=0G0;, ?@>AB><span><b> </b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p> <p> A;8 C6 3>2>@8BL >1 >1I59 B5>@88 <8@0, B> 5Q 8AE>4=>9 84559 <>65B 1KBL B>;L:> 480;5:B8G5A:0O 845O 548=AB20 G5@57 :0G5AB25==>-DC=:F8>=0;L=>5 <=>3>>1@0785 8 42865=85 2 <span><i>?@>AB@0=AB25 - 2@5<5=8 - :0G5AB25</i>. -B0 845O B>65 =5 2K2>48BAO ;>38-G5A:8 =8 87 :0:>9 4@C3>9 8458, >=0 B>65 2K18@05BAO 2 A>>B25B-AB288 A >1J5:B82=>9 459AB28B5;L=>ABLN, 8AE>4O 87 B>3>, GB> DC=40<5=B0;L=K<8 A2>9AB20<8 <0B5@88 O2;ONBAO =5 B>;L:> 5Q 548=AB2> 8 01A>;NB=0O A>E@0=O5<>ABL (=5A>B2>@8<>ABL 8 =5C=8GB>68<>ABL), => 8 :0G5AB25==0O <=>3>>1@07=>ABL 8 87<5=G82>ABL 5Q 1KB8O 2 D>@<5 2708<>?@52@0I0NI8EAO, ;8HL >B=>-A8B5;L=> >B45;L=KE 8 ;8HL >B=>A8B5;L=> CAB>9G82KE <0B5@8-0;L=KE >1J5:B>2.  8<5==> B0:>2 <8@ ?> 40==K< A>2@5<5==>9 =0C:8. </p> <p> ;O 2K@065=8O A0<>9 >1I59 8 3;C1>:>9 ACI=>AB8 1KB8O A 4@52=8E 2@5<Q= 8A?>;L7C5BAO ?>=OB85 AC1AB0=F88. => A;C68B 4;O >1>7=0G5=8O ?>;=>ABLN A0<>>1CA;>2;5==>3> 1KB8O, 25G=> A>E@0=ONI53>AO 2> 2A5E ?@52@0I5=8OE G0AB=KE O2;5=89 8 2KA-BC?0NI53> 8E >A=>2>9. ;0AA8G5A:>5 >?@545;5=85 AC1AB0=F88 40;8 5:0@B 8 !?8=>70: AC1AB0=F8O 5ABL causa sui (?@8G8=0 A0-<>9 A51O), 5ABL B>, GB> ACI5AB2C5B A0<> ?> A515, =5 7028AO =8 >B G53> 4@C3>3>.  B5G5=85 <=>38E AB>;5B89 3>A?>4AB2CNI8< >AB020;>AL ?@54AB02;5=85 > A2O78 ;8HL 2=5H=53> 8 ?>MB><C D0:B8G5A:8 =5>1JOA=Q==>3> A>ACI5AB2>20=8O 25G=>9 8 15A:>=5G=>9 AC1AB0=F88 A GC2AB25==> 2>A?@8=8<05<K<8 >B45;L=K-<8 25I0<8.  B>;L:> =0 ?CB8 @0728B8O 480;5:B8G5A:>3> <8@>-?>=8<0=8O C40;>AL ?>:070BL, 3>2>@O A;>20<8 535;O, &laquo;H5AB285 AC1AB0=F88 G5@57 ?@8G8==>ABL 8 2708<>459AB285&raquo; B5E 25I59, A :>B>@K<8 <K AB0;:8205<AO 2 A2>59 ?@0:B8G5A:>9 687=8 8 =0-CG=KE M:A?5@8<5=B0E. !C1AB0=F859 A;54C5B AG8B0BL =5 :0:>5-B> >B45;L=>5, 871@0==>5 8 >A2OIQ==>5 ?@>O2;5=85 1KB8O, 0 2AN 15A:>=5G=CN A8AB5<C 2708<>?@52@0I0NI8EAO <0B5@80;L-=KE >1J5:B>2, 2AN <0B5@8N 2 15A:>=5G=>< <=>3>>1@0788 5Q ?@>O2;5=89. </p> <p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p> <p> 1>1I0NI85 65 D878G5A:85 B5>@88 2?>;=5 70:>==> AB@5-<OBAO @0A:@KBL =081>;55 3;C1>:CN >A=>2C 5IQ 1>;55 H8@>:>3> :@C30 O2;5=89. > <KA;L D878:>2 =5 C4>2;5B2>@O5BAO MB8< 8, B0: A:070BL, ?> 8=5@F88 CAB@5<;O5BAO : :>=:@5B=>-D878G5A:>-<C >1JOA=5=8N CAB@>9AB20 2A53> <8@0 2 F5;><.  =5 @07 :070-;>AL, GB> MB0 F5;L C65 4>AB83=CB0 - B> 2 2845 :;0AA8G5A:>9 <5E0=8:8, ?>B>< 2 2845 B5@<>48=0<8:8, B5?5@L 2 2845 >1>1-I0NI8E B5>@89 ?>;59 8 M;5<5=B0@=KE G0AB8F. > 2@5<O 8 =>2K5 >B:@KB8O =5C<>;8<> 70AB02;ONB ?@87=0BL =5A1KB>G=>ABL ?>-4>1=KE =04564. @8<5=8B5;L=> :> 2A5<C <8@C 2 F5;>< ?@8E>-48BAO >1E>48BLAO ;8HL D8;>A>DA:8<8 @07<KH;5=8O<8 8 >1>1I5=8O<8, ;8HL >1I59 B5>@859 480;5:B8:8, ;8HL :0G5AB25=-=K<8 >F5=:0<8, 0 =5 :>;8G5AB25==K<8 @0AG5B0<8. 0: 3>2>-@8BAO, :064><C A2>Q.  B0:>5 ?>;>65=85 ?>;=>ABLN A>>B25B-AB2C5B >1I5<C 4CEC A>2@5<5==>9 =0C:8, E0@0:B5@87C5<><C C3-;C1;5=85< :0: 48DD5@5=F80F88, B0: 8 8=B53@0F88 @07;8G=KE >B@0A;59 7=0=8O. </p> <p>  B> 65 2@5<O 2>7<>6=>AB8 5AB5AB25==>=0CG=KE B5>@89 4>2>;L=> >3@0=8G5=K. >MB><C 4065 ?>-AB@>5=85 >B=>A8B5;L=> &laquo;70:>=G5==KE B5>@89&raquo; (B8?0 <5E0=8:8 LNB>=0, B5@<>48=0<8:8, M;5:B@>48=0<8:8 0:A25;;0, :20=B>2>9 <5E0=8:8, B5>@88 3@028B0F8>==KE ?>;59 -9=HB59=0 8 4@C38E), 4>AB0B>G=> ?>;=> >?8AK20NI8E @07;8G=K5 D>@<K 42865=8O <0B5@88, =5 >7=0G05B 2>7<>6=>AB8 2 >4=>9 8;8 =5A:>;L:8E B0:8E B5>@8OE ?>;=>ABLN &laquo;?5@5:@KBL&raquo; 25AL <8@, 8A-G5@?0BL 2A5 :0G5AB25==>5 <=>3>>1@0785 70:>=>2 ?@8@>4K. 06-40O B0:0O B5>@8O A2>48B @50;L=K5 >1J5:BK 8 ?@>F5AAK : 8450;878@>20==K< >1J5:B0<, :>B>@K5 87 2A53> <=>3>>1@078O @5-0;L=KE A2>9AB2 =045;ONBAO ;8HL =5:>B>@K<8 87 =8E, >=0 =5 CG8BK205B <=>385 ?0@0<5B@K, 2B>@>AB5?5==K5 2 40==>< ?@81;865=88 (A B>G:8 7@5=8O B5>@88), => AB0=>2OI85AO 206=K<8 ?@8 40;L=59H5< C3;C1;5=88 2 ACBL @0AA<0B@8205<KE O2;5=89. -B> 8 ?@82>48B : =587156=>9 >3@0=8G5==>AB8 AD5@K ?@8<5=5=8O 1>;LH8=AB20 B5>@89, ?>A:>;L:C 2 ;N1>9 4>AB0B>G=> A>45@60B5;L=>9 B5>@88 ACI5AB2CNB 2>?@>-AK, =0 :>B>@K5 2 @0<:0E MB>9 B5>@88 =5;L7O 40BL >B25B, :>B>@K9 <>65B 1KBL =0945= B>;L:> 2 1>;55 >1I59 B5>@88. </p> <p> >7<>6=>ABL &laquo;70:>=G5==KE B5>@89&raquo; >7=0G0;0 1K 2>7<>6=>ABL :>=F0 =0C:8, 40;LH5 :>B>@>3> =5G53> 1K;> 1K ?>7=020BL.  =0>1>@>B, =5?@5>4>;8<0O >3@0=8G5==>ABL :064>9 >B45;L=>9 B5>@88 ?@54?>;0305B 15A:>=5G=>ABL 2A53> =0CG=>3> ?>7=0=8O. 725AB=K5 =0C:5 >1>1I0NI85 B5>@88 A>AB02;ONB 206=K5 MB0-?K 55 @0728B8O. A5 >=8 >A=>20=K =0 :>=:@5B=KE ?@8=F8?0E, >1>1I0NI8E >?@545;Q==K9 :@C3 D0:B>2, 8 4>?CA:0NB 2>7<>6-=>ABL 8 =5>1E>48<>ABL A2>53> 40;L=59H53> @0728B8O ?> ?CB8 A>740=8O A CG5B>< &laquo;?@8=F8?0 A>>B25BAB28O&raquo; 2AQ 1>;55 >1I8E 8 3;C1>:8E B5>@89, CG8BK20NI8E =>2K5, =58725AB=K5 @0=55 D0:BK 8 70:>=><5@=>AB8. "0: 1K;>, B0: 1C45B 8 40;L-H5. "0:>2 70:>= ?>7=0=8O, >1CA;>2;5==K9 70:>=0<8 A0<>9 ?@8@>4K. </p> <p> 5@5E>4O : 7=0=8O< > =0H59 ?;0=5B5, >B<5B8<, GB> :0: :>A<8G5A:>5 B5;> 5<;O E0@0:B5@87C5BAO A;54CNI8<8 40==K<8: >1J5< 10<span><sup>12</sup> :<, <0AA0 6 <b>?</b> 10<sup>21</sup> B, A@54=OO ?;>B=>ABL 25I5AB20 5,5 3/A<<sup>3</sup>. -:20B>@80;L=K9 @048CA 6378 :<, ?>;O@=K9 - =0 21 :< <5=LH5. 1I0O ?;>I04L ?>25@E=>AB8 5<;8 510 <;=. :<<sup>2</sup>, 87 =8E 361 <;=. :<<sup>2</sup> ?@8E>48BAO =0 8@>2>9 >:50= 8 149 <;=. :<<sup>2</sup> - =0 ACHC. 5<;O C40;5=0 >B !>;=F0 =0 150 <;=. :< 8 2@0I05BAO 2>:@C3 =53> A> A:>@>ABLN 30 :</A. 5<;O >1@07>-20;0AL 4,5 - 4,8 <;@4. ;5B =0704 2 ?@>F5AA5 3@028B0F8>==>9 :>=45=A0-F88 87 @0AA5O==>3> 2 >:>;>A>;=5G=>< ?@>AB@0=AB25 307>?K;52>3> 25I5AB20. </p> <p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p> <p> >7=0=85 3;C18= 5<;8 =5 <5=55 A;>6=>, G5< 87CG5=85 >B40;Q==KE >1;0AB59 A5;5==>9. 081>;55 206=K5 A2545=8O > ?@8@>45 75<=KE =54@ 40QB 0=0;87 A59A<8G5A:8E 2>;= - <5E0-=8G5A:8E :>;510=89, 2>7=8:0NI8E ?@8 75<;5B@OA5=8OE 8;8 27@K20E. 5<=K5 =54@0 @0745;ONB =0 B@8 >A=>2=K5 >1;0AB8: O4@>, <0=B8N 8 :>@C. "5<?5@0BC@0, ?;>B=>ABL 8 402;5=85 @0A-BCB A C25;8G5=85< 3;C18=K. "5<?5@0BC@0 2 F5=B@5 5<;8 4>A-B8305B 10 000 3@04CA>2. 5<=0O :>@0 =0 :>=B8=5=B0E 8<55B B>;-I8=C 4> 65 :<, 0 ?>4 >:50=0<8 - 4> 8 :<. 0:A8<0;L=0O 2KA>B0 =0 ?>25@E=>AB8 5<;8 - 3>@0 6><>;C=3<0 2 8<0;0-OE - 8848 <, A0<>5 3;C1>:>5 <5AB> - 0@80=A:0O 2?048=0 2 "8E>< >:50=5 - 11022 <. >4 75<=>9 :>@>9 @0A?>;0305BAO <0=B8O, A0<0O <>I=0O 87 B25@4KE >1>;>G5: 5<;8. =0 ?@>-AB8@05BAO 4> 3;C18=K 2900 :< 8 A>AB02;O5B 1>;55 60% <0AAK 8 >:>;> 80% >1J5<0 5<;8. /4@> 5<;8 87CG5=> A;01>, AG8B05B-AO, GB> >=> A>AB>8B 87 42CE G0AB59: 2=5H=59 (684:>9) 8 2=CB@5==59 (B25@4>9). =5H=55 O4@> >:07K205B 2;8O=85 =0 <03=8B-=>5 ?>;5 5<;8. </p> <p> >7@0AB !>;=F0 5 <;@4. ;5B. 80<5B@ 2 109 @07 1>;LH5 75<=>3>, 0 <0AA0 2 333 000 @07 1>;L-H5 <0AAK 5<;8. "5<?5@0BC@0 F5=B@0;L=KE >1;0AB59 4>AB8305B 15 <;=. 3@04CA>2, 0 402;5=85 - A>B5= <8;;80@4>2 0B<>AD5@.  MB8E CA;>28OE 84CB O45@=K5 @50:F88 A8=B570 O45@ 2>4>@>40 2 O4@0 35;8O, 70 AGQB :>B>@KE 8 2K45;O5BAO 3@><04=0O M=5@38O. 04 O4@>< !>;=F0 =0E>48BAO B0: =07K205<0O :>=25:B82=0O 7>=0, 0 5I5 2KH5 - 0B<>AD5@0 A> A;>O<8 D>B>AD5@K, E@><>AD5@K 8 :>@>=K. !@54=OO B5<?5@0BC@0 ?>25@E=>AB8 !>;=F0 6000 3@04CA>2. A;8 B>;I8=0 :>@>=K 4>AB8305B 45AOB:>2 A>;=5G=KE @0-48CA>2, B> B>;I8=0 D>B>AD5@K 2A53> 300 :<. #AB0=>2;5=K @07=K5 ?5@8>4K :>;510=8O A>;=5G=>9 0:B82=>AB8. '5@57 :06-4K5 11-12 ;5B CA8;820NBAO D0:5;K 8 ?OB=0 2 D>B>AD5@5, 2A?KH:8 2 E@><>AD5@5, ?@>BC15@0=FK 2 :>@>=5. AQ MB> >:0-7K205B 70<5B=>5 2>7459AB285 =0 0B<>AD5@C 8 18>AD5@C 5<;8, =0 18>;>38G5A:85 8 4065 =0 A>F80;L=K5 ?@>F5AAK. @8GQ< =0 5<;N ?>?0405B <5=55 >4=>9 <8;;80@4=>9 4>;8 2A59 M=5@388, 87;CG05<>9 !>;=F5<, => 8 MB>3> 4>AB0B>G=> 4;O ?>445@60=8O 687=8 =0 =0H59 ?;0=5B5. >4AG8B0=>, GB> B>?;820 =0 !>;=F5 4>AB0B>G=> 5I5 =0 5 <;@4. ;5B. </p> <p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p> <p> 5;8:8< @CAA:8< :>A<8AB>< 1K; .. 5@=04A:89, A>7402-H89 CG5=85 > 18>AD5@5 8 =>>AD5@5, >1>1I82 40==K5 D878:8, E8<88, 18>;>388, 35>;>388, 35>E8<88, 18>E8<88, 0 B0:65 8AB>@88 8 D8;>A>D88. 5OB5;L=>ABL 2A5E 682KE >@30=87<>2 8 >A>15==> G5;>25G5A:>3> >1I5AB20 .. 5@=04A:89 =07K20; <>I=>9 35>;>38G5A:>9 A8;>9, 0 : =0CG=>9 <KA;8 >= >B=>A8;-AO 8<5==> :0: : ?;0=5B=><C O2;5=8N. >4 18>AD5@>9 >= ?>=8-<0; ?;0=5B0@=CN >1;0ABL @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O 687=8, 27OB>9 2 ?@>H;><, =0AB>OI5< 8 1C4CI5<. >4 2;8O=85< 65 =0CG=>9 <KA;8 8 G5;>25G5A:>3> B@C40 18>AD5@0 ?5@5E>48B 2 =>2>5 A>-AB>O=85 - <span><i>=>>AD5@C</i> (AD5@C @07C<0). </p> <p> !;54C5B 8<5BL 2 284C, GB> AB8E89=K<, =5C?@02;O5<K< ?@>-F5AA>< 18>AD5@0 <>65B ?@52@0B8BLAO (8 @50;L=> C65 ?@52@0B8-;0AL) ;8HL 2 B5E=>AD5@C 8 A>F8>AD5@C A> 2A5<8 ?@8ACI8<8 8< 3;>10;L=K<8 ?@>1;5<0<8 8 ?@>B82>@5G8O<8 =530AD5@K. 5@5E>4 65 18>AD5@K 2 =>>AD5@C <>65B 1KBL >ACI5AB2;5= ;8HL 2 B>< A;C-G05, :>340 G5;>25G5AB2> AC<55B >@30=87>20BL :0: A>1AB25==CN M2>;NF8N, B0: 8 40;L=59HCN M2>;NF8N 18>AD5@K 2 F5;><, 459AB28B5;L=> @C:>2>4AB2COAL ?@8=F8?>< &laquo;=5 =02@548&raquo;. >=-F5?F8O .. 5@=04A:>3> > 18>AD5@5, ?5@5E>4OI59 2 =>>AD5-@C, >E20BK205B M2>;NF8N 687=8 8 =0H59 ?;0=5BK 2 548=AB25 :>A<8G5A:8E, 35>;>38G5A:8E, 18>;>38G5A:8E, 0=B@>?>35==KE 8 B5E=>35==KE D0:B>@>2. </p> <p> 708<>A2O7L 8 2708<>7028A8<>ABL MB8E D0:B>@>2 >1=0@C6820NBAO ?@8 8E @0AA<>B@5=88 A ?><>ILN A8AB5<=>-:815@=5B8G5A:>3> ?>4E>40, ;Q3H53> 2 >A=>2C =>2>3> <5648AF8?;8=0@=>3> =0?@02;5=8O =0CG=KE 8AA;54>20=89 - <span><i>A8=5@35B8:C</i>, :>B>@0O >1JOA=O5B A0<>>@30=870F8N A8AB5< :0: A>2>:C?=K9 @57C;LB0B 2708<>459AB28O 2 =8E B0:8E ?@>B82>?>;>6=KE B5=45=F89, :0: =5CAB>9G82>ABL 8 AB018;L=>ABL, 15A?>@O4>: 8 ?>@O4>:, 457>@30=870F8O 8 >@30=870F8O, A;CG09-=>ABL 8 =5>1E>48<>ABL. @8 MB>< A8=5@35B8:0 ?@8=F8?80;L=> >B;8G=0 >B :;0AA8G5A:>9, @02=>25A=>9 B5@<>48=0<8:8, :>B>-@0O A2>8< 2B>@K< 70:>=>< (?@8=F8?><, =0G0;><) ?>4G5@:8-205B =5>1@0B8<K9 E>4 A>1KB89 2 87>;8@>20==KE A8AB5<0E 2 =0-?@02;5=88 @0AA5O=8O, @0AA@54>B>G5=8O 25I5AB20 8 M=5@388, @07C?>@O4>G820=8O 8 C?@>I5=8O A8AB5<, CAB0=>2;5=8O AB0B8-AB8G5A:>3> 15A?>@O4:0, >:07K20NI53>AO BC?8:>2K<, 1572K-E>4=K< A>AB>O=85< 8AE>4=>9 A8AB5<K. !8=5@35B8:0 65 2<5A-B5 A :815@=5B8:>9 8 =5@02=>25A=>9 B5@<>48=0<8:>9 8AE>4OB 87 B>3>, GB> 2> A5;5==>9 =01;N405BAO M2>;NF8O 2 =0?@02;5-=88 2>7=8:=>25=8O 1>;55 A;>6=KE D>@<. </p> <p> >6=> A:070BL, GB> A8=5@35B8:0 ?5@52>48B =0 :>=:@5B=K9 O7K: 5AB5AB2>7=0=8O 480;5:B8G5A:>5 CG5=85 > A0<>@0728B88 <8@0. ACI5AB2;OO 3;C1>:89 A8=B57 >1I5D878G5A:8E 8 :815@-=5B8G5A:8E ?@54AB02;5=89, A8=5@35B8:0 2<5AB5 A B5< C:@5?;O-5B A>N7, ?>7=020B5;L=>5 2708<>459AB285 5AB5AB2>7=0=8O A 480-;5:B8G5A:>9 D8;>A>D859. !8=5@35B8:0 ?>:07K205B, GB> ?@8-G8=>9, 8AB>G=8:>< A0<>>@30=870F88 A;>6=KE A8AB5< O2;O5B-AO =5 GB> 8=>5, :0: A>3;0A>20==>5, :>>?5@8@>20==>5, DC=:F8>=0;L=>5 2708<>-459AB285 8E M;5<5=B>2 8 ?>4A8AB5<. !8=5@35B8:0 :>=:@5B878@>20;0 ?>=8<0=85 ?@>F5AA>2 A0<>>@30=870F88 :0: 548=AB20 ?>@O4:0 8 E0>A0 A ?><>ILN B5>@89 48AA8?0B82=KE AB@C:BC@, @0A:@K20NI8E <5E0=87< :>>?5@8@>20==>3> ?>2545=8O G0AB59 A;>6=KE A8AB5<, 8 B5>@88 48=0<8G5A:>3> E0>A0, ?>4G5@:820NI59 =5>1E>48<>ABL >?@545;Q==>9 =5C?>@O4>G5==>AB8 AB@C:BC@ A;>6=KE A8AB5< 4;O 8E CA?5H=>3> DC=:F8>=8@>20=8O 8 ?>ABC-?0B5;L=>3> @0728B8O.  A;>6=>9, =5C?>@O4>G5==>9 A@545 <>-3CB ?@8A?>A>18BLAO B>;L:> 381:85 A8AB5<K, >1;040NI85 >?@545-;Q==>9, C<5@5==>9 =5C?>@O4>G5==>ABLN, >3@0=8G5==>9 A8AB5<=>9 A2>1>4>9 2 A2>59 AB@C:BC@5. </p> <p> >?@>AK 2AQ 1>;LH59 <span><b><i>3;>10;870F88</i></b> ?@>B5:0NI8E 2 @0<:0E 18>AD5@K ?@>F5AA>2, 2 B.G. 8 2 =>>AD5@5, 8 2 =530AD5@5, 8 2 A>F8>AD5@5, 8 2 B5E=>AD5@5, B0:65 ?@82;5:0NB : A515 2AQ 1>;LH55 2=8<0=85 :0: B5>@5B8:>2, B0: 8 ?@0:B8:>2 2 @07=KE AB@0=0E. ;>10;870F8O C65 402=> :>A=C;0AL B>20@>-?0AA068@A:8E ?5@52>7>:, <8@>2>9 D8=0=A>2>9 AD5@K, BC@87<0, ?>AB02>: AK@LO M=5@388 8 ?@>4>2>;LAB28O. A5 1>;LH5 >=0 ?@>=8:05B 2 ?@>G85 M:>=><8G5A:85 AD5@K (<564C=0@>4=0O B>@3>2;O, 8=25AB8F88, @K=:8 A1KB0, 4>1KG0 8 ?>B@51;5=85 =5DB8 8 3070, 8 B.?.), 70E20BK20O 8=D>@<0F8>==K5 8 <83@0F8>==K5 ?>B>:8, M:>;>38N, AD5@C >1@07>20=8O, >A2>5=85 >:>;>75<=>3> :>A<8G5A:>3> ?@>AB@0=AB20. !;01> >=0 ?>:0 70B@>=C;0 2>A?8B0B5;L=K5 0A?5:BK 687=8 G5;>25G5AB20, =0CG=CN 8 ?@>A25B8B5;LA:CN 45OB5;L=>ABL, 845=B8D8:0F8N >1I5?@8=OBKE ?>=OB89, B01;8FC >1I5G5;>25G5A:8E F5==>AB59 8 ?>@>:>2. </p> <p> B0:, 7=0=85 >A=>2 A>2@5<5==KE =0CG=KE B5>@89 > <8@>740=88 ?>;57=> 8 =5>1E>48<> :064><C G5;>25:C. => ?><>305B 5<C @0728BL 2 4>;6=>9 <5@5 A2>Q A>7=0=85, 0 B0:65 ?>72>;O5B ?@54>AB5@5GL 53> >B ;>6=KE ?@54AB02;5=89 <8@>?>=8<0=8O <=>3>G8A;5==KE A5:B0=BA:>-@5;838>7=KE 25@A89, 0 B0:65 >B G@57<5@=>3> >?B8<87<0 8 >B B0:>3> 65 ?5AA8<87<0 2 >F5=:5 A2>53> =0AB>OI53>, ?5@A?5:B82 1C4CI53>. 0: 8 2 ?@>G8E ?@0:B8G5A:8E 2>?@>A0E, AB@>3> =0CG=0O D8;>A>D8O CG8B =0A 8 2 MB>9 >1;0AB8 ?@845@6820BLAO @50;8AB8G5A:>3> >?B8<87<0.</p> </blockquote><center> <p><img src="../../images/bar62.gif" height="11" width="609" border="0"></p> <p><font size="3">[ <a href="index.htm">0 3;02=CN AB@0=8FC</a> ] [ <a href="03.htm">"5<0 3</a> ]</font></p> </center></body></html>