<html><head> <meta name="Generator" content="None"> <title>>=4@0H8= .. - C@A ;5:F89 "A=>2K !"!% 7=0=89 "5<0 8" </title> </head> <body bgcolor="#EEEEDD" background="../../images/bpaper.gif" text="#000000" link="#0000AA" vlink="#AA0000" alink="#8800AA"> <center> <p><font size="4">[ <a href="index.htm">0 3;02=CN AB@0=8FC</a> ] [ <a href="07.htm">"5<0 7</a> ]</font></p> <p><table width="685" cellpadding="20" cellspacing="4" bgcolor="#EECC99" background="../../images/bkgr17.jpg" border="5"><tr><td align="center" valign="middle"> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto; line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Tahoma","sans-serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:#333333;mso-fareast-language: RU'> <b>"5<0 8. !B@C:BC@0 A>7=0=8O, 53> 45;5=85 =0 ?>4A>7=0=8O. $>@<8@>20=85 >1I5AB25==>3> A>7=0=8O. 5D5:B=K5 8A:065=8O A>7=0=8O. </b>0@0<5B@K A>7=0=8O. =48284C0;L=>5 8 >1I5AB25==>5 A>7=0=85, 8E A?5F8D8:0 8 @07;8G85. A=>2=K5 D>@<K >1I5AB25==>3> A>7=0=8O, ?@8G8=K 8E <=>3>>1@078O 8 8E 2708<>A2O7L. >78B82=K5 8 =530B82=K5 ?>4A>7=0=8O G5;>25:0, 2;8ONI85 =0 :C;LBC@C :064>4=52=>3> ?>2545=8O 8=482840. 5D5:BK ?A8E8:8 8 A>7=0=8O, 2>7<>6=K5 8725AB=K5 8E >B:;>=5=8O 8 A?>A>1K 1>@L1K A =8<8. </b></font></p></td> </tr></table></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto; line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Tahoma","sans-serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:#333333;mso-fareast-language: RU'><b>!>45@60=85 ;5:F88</b></font></p> <p><img src="../../images/bar61.gif" height="7" width="365" border="0"></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto; line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Tahoma","sans-serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:#333333;mso-fareast-language: RU'> <b><i>!B@C:BC@0 A>7=0=8O G5;>25:0 8 53> >B:;>=5=8O</i></b> <br></center> <blockquote> <dd>#AB0=>2;5=>, GB> ?> <5@5 A>25@H5=AB2>20=8O @07C<0 G5;>25:0, 8AB>@8G5A:8 2 53> <>73>2>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 ?>25@E 682>B=KE 8=AB8=:B>2 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>, ?> 2>7@0AB0NI59 D>@<8@>20;8AL @07;8G=K5 C@>2=8 <i>A>7=0=8O</i> - <b><i>?>4A>7=0=8O</i></b>, >?@545;O2H85 8 2AQ 1>;55 >?@545;ONI85 =5 B>;L:> 2AQ 53> 1KB85, :C;LBC@C 53> ?>2545=8O, E>4 :064>4=52=KE 459AB289, => 8 53> A>F80;L=K5, >1I5AB25==K5 >B=>H5=8O, >F5=:C A>1KB89 8 O2;5=89, ?@>8AE>4OI8E 2>:@C3 =53> (2 7028A8<>AB8 >B H8@>BK 53> :@C3>7>@0), 53> =5?>A@54AB25==>5 65;0=85 2;8OBL =0 8E E>4 8;8 CG0AB2>20BL 2 =8E. <dd>>2>@O > <i>A>7=0=88</i>, :0: O2;5=88, 8 53> AB@C:BC@8@>20=88, =5>1E>48<> 8<5BL 2 284C, GB> 2 53> ?>445@60=88 2 @01>G5< A>AB>O=88 70459AB2>20=0 2AO <0B5@80;L=0O =59@>==>-DC=:F8>=0;L=0O >A=>20 3>;>2=>3> <>730, 2 =54@0E :>B>@>9 ?@>8AE>48B ?>AB>O==0O @01>B0 ?> 2708<>A2O78 <564C >B45;0<8 <>730, 2540NI8<8 <i>?A8E8:>9</i>, <i>0;3><>4C;5<</i> 8 <i>8=B5;;5:B><</i>.  B> 65 2@5<O, 3;02=0O ?@82O7:0 AB@C:BC@ A>7=0=8O >ACI5AB2;O5BAO : B@Q< M<?8@8G5A:8< :><?>=5=B0< <>730, 8<5NI8< <5=55 2K@065==K9 E0@0:B5@ 8 >B25G0NI8E 70: <dd>1) AD5@K :@C3>7>@0 <8@>?>=8<0=8O :0: =0 <0:@>-, B0: 8 =0 <8:@>C@>2=OE; <dd>2) >1JQ< 7=0=89, 7864CI8EAO =0 ?>=OB8OE B>9 8;8 8=>9 AB5?5=8 8AB8==>AB8; <dd>3) F5==>AB=CN >@85=B0F8N G5;>25:0. </p> <p> <dd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i>A>7=0=85<</i>, A0<>A>7=0=85<, B.5. 8E A?>A>1=>ABL : ?>7=0=8N, >A<KA;5=8N 8 @0F8>=0;L=><C 8A?>;L7>20=8N >1I5G5;>25G5A:8E 7=0=89 >1 >:@C60NI5< <8@5 8 A515, ?>AB@>5=8N A2>59 A>1AB25==>9 85@0@E8G5A:>9 H:0;K =@02AB25==KE F5==>AB59 8 ?>@>:>2, >?@545;ONI59, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, =>@<K 8 ?@028;0 8E 1KB>2>3> 8 A>F80;L=>3> (2 B.G. 3@0640=A:>3> 8 A25BA:>3>) ?>2545=8O. <dd>5@2K<, :B> A5@LQ7=> ?>?KB0;AO AB@C:BC@8@>20BL A>7=0=85, 1K; 0:045<8: .. 5EB5@52. = B0: ?8A0; >1 MB><: &laquo;57028A8<> >B AB5?5=8 A>7=0B5;L=>AB8 ?A8E8G5A:8E ?@>F5AA>2 @07;8G0NB 5IQ AB5?5=L A>7=0=8O ?> 53> A>45@60=8N, B.5. ?> ?@8ACBAB28N 2 A>7=0B5;L=>9 AD5@5 B5E 8;8 8=KE ?@54AB02;5=89. @028;L=55, >4=0:>, 2 MB8E A;CG0OE 3>2>@8BL > A?5F80;L=KE 2840E A>7=0=8O ?> A;>6=>AB8 53> A>45@60=8O, 0 =5 > AB5?5=8 A0<>3> A>7=0=8O, E>BO 8 ?>A;54=OO ?@8 MB>< =5 >AB0QBAO =587<5==>9. <dd>@>AB59H59 D>@<>9 A>7=0=8O, 2=5 2AO:>3> A><=5=8O, A;54C5B ?@87=020BL B> A>AB>O=85, :>340 5IQ =5 2K@01>B0=> =8 >4=>3> 1>;55 8;8 <5=55 OA=>3> ?@54AB02;5=8O, :>340 ;8HL ACI5AB2C5B =5OA=>5 157>B=>A8B5;L=>5 GC2AB2>20=85 A>1AB25==>3> ACI5AB2>20=8O. <dd>>;55 A;>6=K< O2;O5BAO A>7=0=85 2 B>< A;CG05, :>340 2 =Q< ?@8ACBAB2CNB C65 B5 8 4@C385 ?@54AB02;5=8O.  MB>< A;CG05 =081>;55 M;5<5=B0@=>9 D>@<>9 A>7=0=8O A;54C5B ?@87=020BL BC, ?@8 :>B>@>9 2 A>7=0=88 ?@8ACBAB2C5B 3;02=K< >1@07>< >4=0 3@C??0 ?@54AB02;5=89 > /, :0: AC1J5:B5, 2 >B;8G85 >B =5-/, 8;8 >1J5:B0, 8 87 :>B>@>9 2K@010BK205BAO B0: =07K205<>5 A0<>A>7=0=85, 8=0G5 3>2>@O, B> A>AB>O=85 A>7=0=8O, :>340 2 =5< ?@8ACBAB2C5B 8;8, - GB> 2A5 @02=>, - :064CN <8=CBC <>65B 1KBL 2K720= @O4 ?@54AB02;5=89 > ?>;>65=88 A>1AB25==>3> B5;0, > 42865=88 53> G;5=>2 8 ?@. <dd>!;54CNI59 ?> A;>6=>AB8 D>@<>9 A>7=0=8O O2;O5BAO A>7=0=85 ?@>AB@0=AB20, B.5. B> A>AB>O=85 A>7=0B5;L=>9 AD5@K, :>340 G5;>25: <>65B C65 A>74020BL ?@>AB@0=AB25==K5 ?@54AB02;5=8O >1 >:@C60NI5< 53> <8@5. 0 >A=>20=88 MB8E ?@>AB@0=AB25==KE ?@54AB02;5=89 >= 8 ?>;CG05B 2>7<>6=>ABL >@85=B8@>20BLAO >B=>A8B5;L=> >:@C60NI59 >1AB0=>2:8. <dd>5A:>;L:> 1>;55 A;>6=>9 O2;O5BAO B0 D>@<0 A>7=0=8O, :>340 G5;>25: C;02;8205B C65 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>ABL 2=5H=8E O2;5=89, 1;03>40@O G5<C 2K@010BK205BAO A>7=0=85 2@5<5=8. <dd>0;L=59HCN ?> A;>6=>AB8 AB5?5=L A>7=0=8O ?@54AB02;O5B A>7=0=85 A2>59 ;8G=>AB8, 8=0G5 3>2>@O, B> A>AB>O=85 A>7=0=8O, :>340 2 53> AD5@C <>3CB 1KBL 22545=K B5 @O4K ?@54AB02;5=89, :>B>@K5 A>AB02;ONB, B0: A:070BL, 8=B8<=>5 O4@> ;8G=>AB8, :0:-B>: ?@54AB02;5=8O =@02AB25==K5, @5;838>7=K5, ?@02>2K5 8 ?@. ! MB>9 D>@<>9 A>7=0=8O A2O70=K B0:65 8 ?5@2K5 ?@>O2;5=8O 2>;8 AC1J5:B0. <dd>0:>=5F, 2KAH5N AB5?5=LN A>7=0=8O 4>;6=> 1KBL ?@87=0=> 157 A><=5=8O B> A>AB>O=85 2=CB@5==53> <8@0, :>340 G5;>25:, A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, >1;0405B A?>A>1=>ABLN ?> ?@>872>;C 22>48BL 2 AD5@C A>7=0=8O B5 8;8 4@C385 87 1K2H8E ?@5645 2 53> A>7=0=88 ?@54AB02;5=89, A 4@C3>9 - <>65B 4020BL >BGQB > ?@>8AE>4OI8E 2 53> A>7=0=88 O2;5=8OE, > A<5=5 >4=8E ?@54AB02;5=89 4@C38<8, 8=0G5 3>2>@O, <>65B 0=0;878@>20BL ?@>8AE>4OI85 2 =5< A0<>< ?A8E8G5A:85 ?@>F5AAK. <dd>-B0 A?>A>1=>ABL A0<>?>7=020=8O O2;O5BAO 2A5340 E0@0:B5@8AB8G=59H8< ?@87=0:>< ?>;=>3> A>7=0=8O; CB@0B0 65 MB>9 A?>A>1=>AB8 A;C68B ?5@2K< ?@87=0:>< =0G8=0NI53>AO ?><@0G=5=8O A>7=0=8O. <dd>A5 2KH5C:070==K5 D>@<K A>7=0=8O ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>N A>1AB25==> @07;8G=K5 AB5?5=8 53> A>45@60=8O.  A0<>< 45;5, ;53:> 2845BL, GB> :0640O 87 D>@< A>7=0=8O :@><5 ACI5AB2>20=8O >A>1>9 3@C??K ?@54AB02;5=89 ?@54?>;0305B 8 ?@8ACBAB285 ?@54AB02;5=89, E0@0:B5@87CNI8E 2A5 ?@54H5AB2CNI85 D>@<K A>7=0=8O. > ;CGH8< 4>:070B5;LAB2>< ?>A;54>20B5;L=>AB8 @0728B8O A>7=0=8O 2 C:070==>< =0?@02;5=88 O2;O5BAO ?@O<>5 =01;N45=85 =04 2>AAB0=>2;5=85< A>7=0=8O 2 B> 2@5<O, :>340 G5;>25: ?@>1C6405BAO 87 3;C1>:>3> A=0 8;8 >1<>@>:0. <dd>5@2K< O2;5=85< 2 ?5@8>4 ?@>1C645=8O 2 MB>< A;CG05 2A5340 O2;O5BAO =5OA=>5 GC2AB2>20=85 A>1AB25==>3> ACI5AB2>20=8O.  MB>< A>AB>O=88 AC1J5:B82=> GC2AB2C5<K5 87<5=5=8O 2 =0A A0<8E =5 >B=>AOBAO =0<8 : :0:>9-;81> 2=5H=59 ?@8G8=5, 0 2>A?@8=8<0NBAO ;8HL :0: 2=CB@5==85 ?5@5<5=K, ?@>8AE>4OI85 2 =0A A0<8E 157 2AO:>3> 8E >B=>H5=8O : >:@C60NI5<C <8@C. 8HL <0;>-?><0;C A>7=0=85 ?@>1C6405BAO, 8 AC1J5:B =0G8=05B A>7=020BL A51O G5;>25:><, ?>:>OI8<AO 2 8725AB=>< ?>;>65=88.  40;L=59H59 D075 ?@>1C645=8O A>7=0QBAO C65 1>;55 8;8 <5=55 ?@028;L=> 8 >:@C60NI0O >1AB0=>2:0, 0 =5A:>;L:> ?>74=55 8 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>ABL A>1KB89, B.5. 2@5<O. 0B5< G5;>25: C65 2ABC?05B 2 >1;040=85 2A5<8 B5<8 ?@54AB02;5=8O<8, :>B>@K5 53> E0@0:B5@87CNB :0: 8725AB=CN ;8G=>ABL, => 8 ?@8 MB>< 5IQ =5 <>65B 1KBL @5G8 > ?>;=>< A>7=0=88 4> B5E ?>@, ?>:0 G5;>25: =5 1C45B 2 A>AB>O=88 40BL OA=K9 >BGQB > 2AQ< ?@>8AE>4OI5< 2 =Q<. <dd> 0728B85 A>7=0=8O 2 ?5@2>=0G0;L=CN M?>EC 687=8 :064>3> G5;>25:0, 157 2AO:>3> A><=5=8O, ?@>8AE>48B B5< 65 ?CB5< 8 2 B>9 65 A0<>9 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>AB8. 564C B5< 2 ?0B>;>38G5A:8E A;CG0OE, A>?@>2>640NI8EAO ?@>3@5AA8@CNI8< >A;01;5=85< C<AB25==>9 AD5@K, :0: ?@8 2B>@8G=>< A;01>C<88 8 ?@>3@5AA82=>< ?0@0;8G5 ?><5H0==KE, A>7=0=85 ?>AB5?5==> ?@5B5@?5205B >1@0B=K9 <5B0<>@D>7. <dd> ?>A;54=5< A;CG05 ?5@2>=0G0;L=> CB@0G8205BAO A?>A>1=>ABL A0<>?>7=020=8O, 70B5< @0AAB@0820NBAO B5 @O4K ?@54AB02;5=89, A>2>:C?=>ABL :>B>@KE A;C68B E0@0:B5@8AB8:>9 =@02AB25==>9 ;8G=>AB8 40==>3> ;8F0; A B5G5=85< 65 2@5<5=8 C B0:>3> @>40 1>;L=KE CB@0G8205BAO C65 8 A>7=0=85 2@5<5=8, 0 70B5< 8 A>7=0=85 <5AB0, B>340 :0: A0<>A>7=0=85 8 A>7=0=85 > /, :0: AC1J5:B5, >AB0NBAO 1>;LH59 G0ABLN =5=0@CH5==K<8 4065 8 ?@8 7=0G8B5;L=>9 AB5?5=8 A;01>C<8O. > =5A><=5==>, GB> 2 =5:>B>@KE A;CG0OE :@09=53> C?04:0 C<AB25==KE A?>A>1=>AB59 CB@0G820NBAO 8 MB8 M;5<5=B0@=K5 8 2 B> 65 2@5<O 1>;55 AB>9:85 D>@<K A>7=0=8O, ?@8G5< >B 2A53> C<AB25==>3> 1>30BAB20 G5;>25:C >AB0QBAO ;8HL >4=> =5OA=>5 GC2AB2>20=85 A>1AB25==>3> ACI5AB2>20=8O&raquo;. <dd>$>@<8@>20=85 <i>A>7=0=8O</i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dd>0: 2 A;CG0OE A =0@CH5=85< 18>E8<8G5A:>3> ?>?>;=5=8O <8:@>M;5<5=B0<8 2 ?@>F5AA5 :;5B>G=>3> <5B01>;87<0 2 @57C;LB0B5 >4=>AB>@>==53>, <0;>F5==>3> 8;8 2@54=>3> ?8B0=8O ?@>8AE>4OB @07;8G=>9 AB5?5=8 BO65AB8 701>;520=8O >@30=87<0, B0: 8 2 A;CG0OE =0@CH5=8O ?@>F5AA0 8=D>@<0F8>==>3> <5B01>;87<0 2 @57C;LB0B5 ?>B@51;5=8O >4=>AB>@>==59, <0;>F5==>9 8;8 =530B82=>9 8=D>@<0F88 ?@>8AE>48B >BC?5=85 8;8 8A:065=85 A>7=0=8O, ?5@5@0AB0NI55 2 @07=>9 AB5?5=8 BO65AB8 53> 701>;520=8O - 4>1@>:0G5AB25==K5 8 7;>:0G5AB25==K5 H87>D@5=8G5A:85 >B:;>=5=8O. <dd>'5< @07=>AB>@>==59 8 30@<>=8G=59 =01>@ (A>2>:C?=>ABL) 7=0=89 C 40==>3> 8=482840 8;8 >1I5AB20, 2 :>B>@>< >= >18B05B, G5< 1>;55 >=8 8AB8==K 8 =0CG=K, G5< 1>;LH5 AD5@ 1KB8O >=8 >E20BK20NB, G5< ?@81;86Q==59 53> ?5@A>=0;L=0O H:0;0 : 8450;L=>9 (MB0;>==>9) H:0;5 F5==>AB59 8 ?>@>:>2, B5< 1>;55 2KA>:89 C@>25=L 8=48284C0;L=>3> 8 >1I5AB25==>3> A>7=0=89 <K <>65< =01;N40BL.  8<5==> A>3;0A=> 4>AB83=CB><C C@>2=N 8 =0?@02;5=8N @0728B8O A>1AB25==>3> A>7=0=8O 40==K9 8=48284 8;8 >1I5AB2> (:0: >@30=87<) AB@>OB A2>5 ?>2545=85, 459AB2CNB (@5038@CNB =0 A>1KB8O 8 O2;5=8O) 2 B>9 8;8 8=>9 687=5==>9 A8BC0F88. </p> <p> <dd>B0:, M;5<5=B=>9 107>9 <i>A>7=0=8O</i>, 53> A2>5>1@07=K<8 :8@?8G8:0<8 O2;ONBAO ?>=OB8O 8=D>AD5@K, :>B>@K5, :0: <K 7=05<, @072820NBAO 2> 2@5<5=8, >B@060O 2AQ 1>;LHCN 8E 8AB8==>ABL, ?@81;860NICN ?>7=0=85 : @50;L=>AB8 ?> 8725AB=>9 F5?>G:5: <br><b>0</b>) =52545=85 > ?@54<5B5 ?>=OB8O <img src="../../images/symm18.gif" height="15" width="19" border="0"> <b>1</b>) ?5@2>5 ?@54AB02;5=85 > ?@54<5B5 ?>=OB8O <img src="../../images/symm18.gif" height="15" width="19" border="0"> <b>2</b>) 1>;55 C3;C1;5==K5 7=0=8O (>B=>A8B5;L=0O 8AB8=0) <img src="../../images/symm18.gif" height="15" width="19" border="0"> <b>3</b>) ?>;=K5 7=0=8O > ACB8 ?>=OB8O (01A>;NB=0O 8AB8=0). <dd>>=OB8O, 2:;NG0O F5==>AB=K5, :;0AA8D8F8@CNBAO ?> >1;0ABO< 7=0=89, ?>418@0NBAO ?> AD5@0< 1KB8O 8 ?>AB5?5==> A8=B578@CNBAO 2 ?>4A>7=0=8O, :>B>@K5 2 A2>59 :;0AA8D8:0F88 8<5NB >1I85 G5@BK, A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, A> AD5@0<8 <0:@>:>A<>A0, A 4@C3>9, A 85@0@E859 F5==>AB59-?>@>:>2. <dd>>4A>7=0=8O, :0: 8 ?>=OB8O, @072820NBAO 2> 2@5<5=8 ?> A;54CNI59 F5?>G:5: <br><b>0</b>) ?>;=>5 >BACBAB285 2 A>7=0=88 G5;>25:0 7=0=89 > ?>=OB8OE 40==>3> ?>4A>7=0=8O <img src="../../images/symm18.gif" height="15" width="19" border="0"> <b>1</b>) 7=0=85, =5:>B>@>5 ?@54AB02;5=85 > ?>=OB8OE 40==>3> ?>4A>7=0=8O <img src="../../images/symm18.gif" height="15" width="19" border="0"> <b>2</b>) C3;C1;5==K5 7=0=8O > 1>;LH8=AB25 ?>=OB89 40==>3> ?>4A>7=0=8O <img src="../../images/symm18.gif" height="15" width="19" border="0"> <b>3</b>) 8AB8==K5 7=0=8O > <0:A8<C<5 ?>=OB89 40==>3> ?>4A>7=0=8O. <dd>AE>4O 87 MB>3>, A59G0A 2 AB@C:BC@5 A>2>:C?=>3> G5;>25G5A:>3> A>7=0=8O ;N1>3> 8=48284CC<0 <>6=> @07;8G8BL 3@C??K ?>4A>7=0=89, :>B>@K5 CA;>2=> <>6=> >1>7=0G8BL 8 >B=5AB8 : A0<>A>7=0=8N, 8=48284C0;L=><C (;8G=>AB=><C), >1I5AB25==><C 8 3;>10;8ABA:><C A>7=0=8N, ?@8 MB>< =0?@02;5==>ABL 2 8E @0728B88 2 A8;C B5E 8;8 8=KE >1AB>OB5;LAB2 <>65B 1KBL, :0: <K C65 3>2>@8;8, ;81> ?>78B82=>9, =>@<0;L=>9, ?@>4C:B82=>9, 74>@>2>9, :>@>G5, =>>AD5@=>9, B> 5ABL 2 AB>@>=C CA;>2=>3> &laquo;1>3>G5;>25G5AB20&raquo;, ;81> =530B82=>9, =5=>@<0;L=>9, 45AB@C:B82=>9, ?0B>;>38G5A:8 1>;L=>9, 2 >1I5<, =530AD5@=>9, B> 5ABL 2 AB>@>=C CA;>2=>3> &laquo;725@>G5;>25G5AB20&raquo;. <dd>B0:, 2=0G0;5 ?5@5G8A;8< 3@C??K ?>;>68B5;L=KE, ?@>4C:B82=KE ?>4A>7=0=89, D>@<8@CNI8E A>2>:C?=>5 A>7=0=85 =>@<0;L=>3>, 74>@>2>3> G5;>25:0, >@85=B8@>20==>5 =0 A>2@5<5==>5 <8@>2>77@5=85 8 A;>682HCNAO : =0AB>OI5<C 2@5<5=8 A8AB5<C >1I5?@8=OBKE >1I5G5;>25G5A:8E F5==>AB59 (2A5 A> 7=0:>< + ): <dd><b>0.</b> <u>>78B82=>5 ?@8<8B82=>5 A0<>A>7=0=85 G5;>25:0</u> 2:;NG05B, ?@5645 2A53>, >A>7=0=85 A2>53> 1KB8O, B.5. A0<>3> D0:B0 A2>53> ACI5AB2>20=8O :0: 682>3> <0B5@80;L=>3> ACI5AB20 8 A2O70==K5 A MB8< 8=AB8=:BK A0<>A>E@0=5=8O, 2 A8;C G53> <K 548<, A?8<, <>5<AO, G8AB8< 7C1K, E>48< 2 BC0;5B, 45;05< 70@O4:C, ;5G8<AO >B 1>;57=59, ?;>48< ?>B><AB2>, B> 5ABL ?@8=8<05< 2A5 <5@K 4;O ?>445@60=8O A2>59 687=8 8 A>E@0=5=8O 2840. '5@57 MB> ?>4A>7=0=85, D0:B8G5A:8 107>2>5, :>B>@>5 ?>;=>ABLN D>@<8@C5BAO ;8HL : 20 3>40<, G5;>25: C4>2;5B2>@O5B 5AB5AB25==K5 ?>B@51=>AB8 A2>53> >@30=87<0, >AB020OAL E>BO 8 2KAH8<, => 682>B=K<. <dd><b>1.</b> <u>=48284C0;L=>5 (;8G=>AB=>5) ?>4A>7=0=85</u> >A=>20=> =0 >A>7=0=88 A>1AB25==>3> &laquo;/ - M3>&raquo;, ?>=8<0=88 A51O :0: =5:>53> 8=48284CC<0 87 G8A;0 Homo sapiens, ?@>6820NI53> 2 >1I5AB25 A515 ?>4>1=KE. ;03>40@O MB><C ?>4A>7=0=8N <K A0<>2>A?8BK205<AO 8 A0<>>1@07>2K205<AO, B> 5ABL =5 ?@>AB> CG8<AO G5<C-B> C 4@C38E G5@57 =01;N45=85, A;CH0=85, GB5=85, => 8 0=0;878@C5<, &laquo;>F5=8205<&raquo; B>, G5<C CG8<AO G5@57 4C<0=L5 A B5<, GB>1K ?5@5=8<05<K9 >?KB 1K; <0:A8<0;L=> ?>;57=K<, F5==K<, 0 ?>AB8305<K9 >1JQ< 7=0=89 1>;55 ?>;=K<, @07=>AB>@>==8< 8 ?@>4C:B82=K<.  :>=5G=>< 8B>35 ;N1>9 8=48284CC< 2 A2>5< 8=48284C0;L=>< @0728B88 =0 ?CB8 : A>25@H5=AB2C 4>;65= 4>1820BLAO ?@545;L=>9 30@<>=88 A2>53> 2=CB@5==53> <8@0, AB@C:BC@8@CO 53> ?> >1@07C 8 ?>4>18N 8450;L=>9 (MB0;>==>9) 85@0@E88 F5==>AB=KE ?>=OB89. @8 MB>< 53> 687=5==0O F5;520O CAB0=>2:0 4>;6=0 2K@060BL AB@5<;5=85 4>AB8GL AB>;L 2KA>:>3> C@>2=O 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=KE, <>@0;L=KE 8 D878G5A:8E ?>:070B5;59, =0 :>B>@K9 B>;L:> 2 A>>B25BAB288 A ?@8@>4=K<8 40==K<8 A?>A>15= 53> >@30=87<, 8 ?@5645 2A53>, 53> <>73. "5< A0<K< >ACI5AB2;O5BAO D>@<8@>20=85 <5=B0;L=>9 8=48284C0;L=>AB8 8 :C;LBC@K ?>2545=8O 8 >1I5=8O 8=482840. 57C;LB0B>< 2A5E MB8E CA8;89 4>;6=> AB0BL ?>O2;5=85 C =53> <i>=@02AB25==>AB8</i> 8 <i>A>25AB8</i>. <dd>> 2 ;N1>< A;CG05 40==>5 ?>4A>7=0=85 4>;6=> 1KBL @0728B> =0AB>;L:>, B.5. 4> B0:>3> <8=8<C<0, GB>1K G5;>25: 1K; 2 A>AB>O=88 7=0BL, C2060BL 8 A>1;N40BL A>>B25BAB2CNI85 MB8G5A:85 8 :C;LBC@=K5 =>@<K >1I568B8O 40==>9 A;>682H59AO 2 0:BC0;L=K9 <><5=B >1I=>AB8 ;N459, 045:20B=> @5038@>20BL =0 5Q 40;L=59H89 ?@>3@5AA 2 AB>@>=C A>25@H5=AB20. !5<LO 8 H:>;0, 3>AC40@AB2> 2 F5;>< <>3CB 8 4>;6=K B>;L:> ?><>30BL @0728BL 8=48284C0;L=>ABL ;8G=>AB8, => 2AO :>=5G=0O >B25BAB25==>ABL 70 =0;8G85 8 AB5?5=L @0728B>AB8 8<5==> 40==>3> 2840 ?>4A>7=0=8O, :>B>@>5 2>7=8:05B A 3 - 4 ;5B 8 4;8BAO 2AN A>7=0B5;L=CN D07C 687=8 G5;>25:0, 2A5 @02=> ;>68BAO 2A5F5;> =0 =53> A0<>3>. <dd>KAH0O AB5?5=L @0728B8O ?@8<8B82=>3> 107>2>3> 2 ?>;=>F5==>5 ;8G=>AB=>5 ?>4A>7=0=85 >7=0G05B ?@87=0=85 40==>3> 8=482840 A;>682H59AO ;8G=>ABLN, 8=B5;;835=B><, B> 5ABL G5;>25:><, :>B>@K9 A>7405B, @0728205B 8 @0A?@>AB@0=O5B :C;LBC@C =0 1075 >1I5?@8=OBKE >1I5G5;>25G5A:8E F5==>AB59, >4=>2@5<5==> ?@>O2;OO =5B5@?8<>ABL 8 254O 1>@L1C A 8725AB=K<8 ?>@>:0<8. ">;L:> B0:>9 <i>G5;>25:</i> 8<55B ?@02> 2>A?8BK20BL 4@C38E G;5=>2 >1I5AB20 A B5<, GB>1K >=8 B>65 AB0;8 <i>;N4L<8</i>. <dd><i>=48284CC<=K5 ?>4A>7=0=8O >1I5AB25==>3> A>7=0=8O</i> <dd><b>2.</b> <u>!5<59=>5 ?>4A>7=0=85</u> >A=>20=> =0 >A>7=0=88 A51O :0: ?@54AB028B5;O =5 B>;L:> 2840, => 8 >4=>3> 87 @>4>2 G5;>25G5A:8E, B> 5ABL, ?@5645 2A53>, :0: ?>B><:0 A2>8E ?@O<KE ?@54:>2 8 ?@>4>;60B5;O A2>8E @>4>2KE :>@=59. !5<LO (A5<L /), >1J548=ONI0O A0<KE 1;87:8E @>4AB25==8:>2, O2;O5BAO @5?@>4C:B82=>9 >A=>2>9 >1I5AB20 8 2:;NG05B @5?@>4CF8@CNICN ?0@C, 8E @>48B5;59 8 45B59. A>7=020O MB>, <K =5 B>;L:> 702>48< A2>N A5<LN 8 ?;>48< ?>B><AB2> (45B59, 2=C:>2), =5 B>;L:> 70@010BK205< A515 A@54AB20 =0 687=L, =5 B>;L:> E@0=8< ?0<OBL > =0H8E ?@54:0E 8 A5<59=K5 B@048F88, => 8 4>;6=K C<5BL ?>445@6820BL =>@<0;L=K5 >B=>H5=8O <564C AC?@C30<8, ?@028;L=> 2>A?8BK20BL 45B59, 0 5A;8 =04>, B> 8 A51O, 4@C38E G;5=>2 A5<L8, CE06820BL 70 45BL<8, @>48B5;O<8, 4@C3 70 4@C3><. <dd>;03>40@O MB><C ?>4A>7=0=8N, :>B>@>5 AD>@<8@>2K205BAO 345-B> : 25 - 30 3>40<, <K B0:65 ?KB05<AO A>25@H8BL GB>-B> 4>AB>9=>5, 1;03>@>4=>5, 0 <>65B 1KBL, 8 2K40NI55AO, GB>1K =5 ABK4=> 1K;> ?5@54 ?>B><:0<8. "0:8< >1@07><, G5@57 40==>5 ?>4A>7=0=85 (:>B>@>5 4>;6=> ?@82820BLAO 2 :064>9 A5<L5, => ?@828B> 40;5:> =5 :064><C) ?>O2;ONBAO ?5@2K5 ?@87=0:8 ?>=8<0=8O B5G5AB20 8 >ACI5AB2;O5BAO =52848<0O A2O7L >B ?@54:>2 G5@57 =K=5H=55 ?>:>;5=85 : ?>B><:0<. <dd>!5<59=K5 >B=>H5=8O =0G0;8 A:;04K20BLAO 5IQ 2 ?5@8>4 @>4>2KE >1I8= 8 @072820;8AL =0 ?@>BO65=88 BKAOG5;5B89. <5==> A5<L5 2> 2A5E AB@0=0E <8@0 ?@54>AB02;5=> ?@02> ?@8A20820BL 2=>2L ?>O282H5<CAO =0 A25B G5;>25:C 53> FID - @>4>2CN 845=B8D8:0F8N, A>AB02;5==CN 87 @>4>2>9 D0<8;88, 53> ?5@A>=0;L=>3> 8<5=8 8 >BG5AB20. >4 MB8<8 =08<5=>20=8O<8 G5;>25: 7=0G8BAO 8 682QB 2 >1I5AB25, 81> 2=5 >1I5AB20 >=8 =5=04>1=K. @8 MB>< 2> <=>38E AB@0=0E 4=Q< @>645=8O @515=:0 AG8B05BAO, GB> A>25@H5==> 25@=>, <><5=B 53> 70G0B8O, 0 =5 <><5=B 2KE>40 @515=:0 87 G@520 <0B5@8, :0: MB> 4> A8E ?>@ 5IQ ?@8=OB> AG8B0BL C >BAB0;KE 8 =52565AB25==KE =0@>4>2. @028;L=> ?>ABC?0NB 2 B5E AB@0=0E, 345 ?>O282H5<CAO =0 A25B <0;KHC 2 4>:C<5=B0E > @>645=88 A@07C 65 ?@8102;O5BAO 9 <5AOF52 53> 687=8 - ?5@8>4 53> 2=CB@8CB@>1=>3> @0728B8O. "0:>9 ?>@O4>: @538AB@0F88 4=O @>645=8O 45;05B =@02AB25==> 157>B25BAB25==K< ;N1>5 ?@5@K20=85 15@5<5==>AB8, B.5. 01>@B - D0:B8G5A:>5 C189AB2> C65 =0G02H53> 68BL A <><5=B0 A2>53> 70G0B8O G5;>25:0. <dd>>A@54AB2>< 4@C61K A2>59 A5<L8 A 4@C38<8 1;03>?>;CG=K<8 A5<LO<8 G5;>25: ?>7=05B ABC?5=8 >1I5AB25==>9 8=B53@0F88 8 ?@8>1@5B05B >?KB : A>>B25BAB2CNI59 =04K=48284C0;L=>9 A0<>>@30=870F88. <dd><b>3.</b> <u> 0A>2>-=0F8>=0;8AB8G5A:>5 ?>4A>7=0=85</u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dd><b>4.</b> <u>5<;OG5A:>5 ?>4A>7=0=85</u> >A=>20=> =0 >A>7=0=88 A51O :0: 68B5;O :0:>9-B> 35>3@0D8G5A:>9 <5AB=>AB8 - A5;0, 3>@>40, >1;0AB8, :@0O. /2;O5BAO ?5@2>>A=>2>9 =0F8>=0;L=>3> ?>4A>7=0=8O 8 ?0B@8>B87<0 <5AB=>3> 7=0G5=8O. >:0 G0I5 :C;LB828@C5BAO =0 1KB>2><, 8=>340 ?@>?030=48ABA:>< C@>2=5. <5AB5 A B5<, G5@57 MB> ?>4A>7=0=85 <K 4>;6=K =5 B>;L:> ?>445@6820BL 2 ?>@O4:5, => 8 C:@0H0BL A2>8 4><0, ?>4J574K, C;8FK, ?0@:8, A5;0, 3>@>40, AB@>8BL 4>1@K5 >B=>H5=8O A> A2>8<8 A>A54O<8, >4=>A5;LG0=0<8, 68B5;O<8 40==>3> 3>@>40, @09>=0 8 B.4. 0 MB>< ?>4A>7=0=88 2 >AA88 2 A2>5 2@5<O CA?5H=> >ACI5AB2;O;>AL 75<A:>5 A0<>C?@02;5=85. <dd><b>5.</b> <u>>4A>7=0=85 25@>20=8O, ?>G8B0=8O, ?@825@65==>AB8</u>, G5@57 :>B>@>5 <K >ICI05< A2>8 <8@>2>77@5=G5A:85 ?@54?>GB5=8O, A2>8 ?@8AB@0AB8O : G5<C-;81> 8;8 : :><C-;81>. >65B >:07K20BL A?5F8D8G5A:>5 2;8O=85 =0 ?A8E8:C 8=48284>2. =0G8B5;L=>9 4>;59 MB>3> ?>4A>7=0=8O O2;O5BAO @5;838>7=>-0B58AB8G5A:>5 ?>4A>7=0=85, >A=>20==>5 =0 ?@8=04;56=>AB8 8=482840 : :0:>9-;81> @5;8388 A 5Q CG5=8O<8 8 >1@O40<8, ;81>, =0>1>@>B, >B25@30NI55 ACI5AB2>20=85 :0:8E-;81> ?>BCAB>@>==8E A8;. '5@57 MBC G0ABL A>7=0=8O <K >A>7=05< A51O :0: E@8AB80=5, <CAC;L<0=5, 1C448ABK, 10?B8ABK 8 B.4. 2?;>BL 4> 0B58AB>2. !;C68B <8@>2>77@5=G5A:>9 8 MB8G5A:>9 >A=>2>9 4;O ;N459, 8 ?@5645 2A53> B5E, C :>3> 687=5==K5 CAB>8 =5 ?>4:@5?;5=K E>@>H8< 2>A?8B0=85< 8 A>>B25BAB2CNI8< >1@07>20=85<. KAH59 AB5?5=LN @0728B>AB8 @5;838>7=>-0B58AB8G5A:>3> ?>4A>7=0=8O O2;O5BAO >A>7=0=85 ?@028;L=>AB8 8459 ?@>A25IQ==>3> 0B587<0, >4=0:> MB> B@51C5B >7=0:><;5=8O A 1>;LH8< :@C3>< =0CG=KE 7=0=89. >MB><C =52565AB2> 1>;LH8=AB20 ;N459 ;>68BAO 2 >A=>2C 8E @5;838>7=>AB8. <5AB5 A B5<, ?@825@65==>ABL 8 ?>G8B0=85 ?@>O2;O5BAO C G5;>25:0 2> <=>38E 8?>AB0AOE, G0AB> A>25@H5==> =5>6840==KE. &laquo;>;5NB&raquo; 70 =0F8>=0;L=CN DCB1>;L=CN :><0=4C, 70 :0:>9-B> A?>@B82=K9 :;C1, =5>6840==> =0G8=0NB ?>G8B0BL B>3> 8;8 8=>3> 8725AB=>3> G5;>25:0, A?>A>1AB2CO 53> &laquo;A;025&raquo;, G0AB> =570A;C65==>9. <dd><b>6.</b> <u>@>D5AA8>=0;L=>5 ?>4A>7=0=85</u> >A=>20=> =0 >A>7=0=88 A51O :0: G5;>25:0, 2;045NI53> B>9 8;8 8=>9 ?@>D5AA859, GB> 2K@0605BAO 2 A>>B25BAB2CNI5< 70?>;=5=88 8=48284C0;L=>3> 0;3><>4C;O A?5F8D8G5A:8<8 (?@>D5AA8>=0;L=K<8) . !B@5<;5=85 G5;>25:0 : A>25@H5=AB2C ?>1C6405B 53> A>25@H5=AB2>20BL 8 A2>Q ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>5 <0AB5@AB2>, @072820BL 40==CN ?@>D5AA8N. '5@57 MB> ?>4A>7=0=85 A>740NBAO B0:65 ?@>DA>N7K 8 ?>445@6820NB 4@C3 4@C30 H0EBQ@K, CG8B5;O, <C7K:0=BK, 2>5==K5 8 B.4. <dd><b>7.</b> <u>>@?>@0B82=>5 ?>4A>7=0=85 </u>>A=>20=> =0 >A>7=0=88 A51O :0: G;5=0 ?@>872>4AB25==>3> :>;;5:B820, D8@<K, 8=AB8BCB0, :><0=4K 548=><KH;5==8:>2, :0: 548=>3> >@30=87<0, 2 A8;C G53> <K AB@5<8<AO : 53> @0728B8N, A?;>GQ==>AB8, 40;L=59H5<C A>25@H5=AB2C, : MDD5:B82=>AB8 53> A>2>:C?=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, @50;870F88 ?>;57=KE 8=8F80B82, 4>AB865=8N =>2KE 70<KA;>2, : ?>1545 2 :>=:C@5=B=>-:>=:C@A=>9 A>@52=>20B5;L=>AB8 :>;;5:B82>2. <dd><i>>AC40@AB25==>-?>;8B8G5A:85 ?>4A>7=0=8O >1I5AB25==>3> A>7=0=8O</i> <dd><b>8.</b> <u>0@B89=>5 ?>4A>7=0=85</u> >A=>20=> =0 ?@8=04;56=>AB8 : :0:>9-;81> >1I5AB25==>9 8;8 >1I5AB25==>-?>;8B8G5A:>9 >@30=870F88, >BAB0820NI59 >?@545;Q==CN B>G:C 7@5=8O 8;8 845>;>38N, 2845=85 >@30=870F88 >1I5AB20, C?@02;5=8O 3>AC40@AB2><, ?@>3@0<< @0728B8O M:>=><8:8, ?@><KH;5==>AB8 8 D8=0=A>2, 2>A?8B0=8O 8 >1@07>20=8O, :C;LBC@K, <548F8=K, M:>;>388 8 B.?. <dd><b>9.</b> <u>0F8>=0;L=>-3>AC40@AB25==>5 ?>4A>7=0=85</u> >A=>20=> =0 ?@8=04;56=>AB8 : :0:><C-;81> =0@>4C (MB=>AC, =0F88), &laquo;=0F88 ?> 3@0640=AB2C&raquo;. '5@57 MB> ?>4A>7=0=85, ?@>O2;5=85 :>B>@>3> ?@8=OB> =07K20BL 3@0640=A:8< ?0B@8>B87<><, <K >A>7=0Q< A51O :0: 8AB>@8G5A:CN MB=8G5A:CN >1I=>ABL ;N459, A;>682HCNAO 87 @07;8G=KE ?;5<Q=, =0@>4=>AB59 8 =0@>4>2 2 ?@>F5AA5 D>@<8@>20=8O >1I=>AB8 8E B5@@8B>@88 2 F5;OE C:@5?;5=8O M:>=><8G5A:8E A2O759 =0 1075 548=>3> 2=CB@5==53> @K=:0, 8A?>;L7>20=8O 548=>3> O7K:0, >1I59 :C;LBC@K ?>2545=8O, 548=>9 85@0@E88 F5==>AB59-?>@>:>2.  A8;C MB>3> 2 >A=>25 :064>9 =0F88 ;568B =0F8>=0;L=>-8459=>5 (<i>=0F8O</i> 2 H8@>:>< ?>=OB88), A>F80;L=>-?>;8B8G5A:>5, =@02AB25==>-F5==>AB=>5, :C;LBC@=>-?>2545=G5A:>5, O7K:>2>5 8 M:>=><8G5A:>5 548=AB2>, D>@<0;L=> 70:@5?;O5<>5 >1@07>20=85< =0 >1I59 B5@@8B>@88 548=>3> 3>AC40@AB20, :0: 2KAH59 D>@<K A0<>>@30=870F88 40==>9 >1I=>AB8. AE>4O 87 MB>3>, <i>=0F8O</i> - MB> E>@>H> A>@30=87>20==K9 548=K9 A>F8C< A>3@0640=, 8<5NI8E =0F8>=0;L=>5 A0<>A>7=0=85, GB> >=8 @CAA:85 (@>AA8O=5), 8;8 =5<FK, 8;8 D@0=FC7K, 0<5@8:0=FK, 1@8B0=FK, 15;L389FK, <5:A8:0=FK, 87@08;LBO=5 8 B.4., >@30=87>20==K5 2 >4=C 1>;LHCN >1I5AB25==CN >@30=870F8N ?>4 =0720=85< 3>AC40@AB2> A> A2>59 A8AB5<>9 >@30=870F88 C?@02;5=8O, A0<>70I8BK, A2>8<8 B@048F8O<8, F5==>ABO<8, CAB>O<8, 8AB>@859, =0F8>=0;L=K<8 8=B5@5A0<8 8 F5;O<8. <dd>B=>A8B5;L=K< ?@545;>< 3>AC40@AB25==>3> A>25@H5=AB20 O2;O5BAO =5 B>;L:> >?B8<0;L=0O =0 40==K9 <><5=B 53> AB@C:BC@0, => 8 4>AB0B>G=> 2KA>:89 C@>25=L >1I5AB25==>3> A>7=0=8O 3@0640=, C :>B>@KE >ICI5=85 <i>>1O70==>AB59</i>, 4>;30, 8;8 4>;65=AB2>20=8O (B.5. <i>@07C<0</i>, ?> 0=BC), ?@520;8@C5B =04 >ICI5=85< 8E <i>?@02</i> (G0AB> M3>8AB8G5A:8E) 8 2K@0605BAO, ?><8<> ?@>G53>, 2 8E C<5=88 2K18@0BL, 45;538@>20BL 225@E ?> 2;0AB=>9 25@B8:0;8 =08;CGH8E A2>8E A>3@0640= A F5;LN >15A?5G5=8O =04;560I59 >@30=870F88 DC=:F8>=8@>20=8O 3>AC40@AB25==KE 8 >1I5AB25==KE >@30=>2. <dd><b>10.</b> <u>&828;870F8>==>5 ?>4A>7=0=85</u> >A=>20=> =0 ?@8=04;56=>AB8 : :0:>9-;81> F828;870F88 (52@>?59A:>9, :8B09A:>9, 8A;0<A:>9, A;02O=A:>9 8 B.4.), =5D>@<0;L=> >1J548=ONI59 @O4 =0F89 2 AC?5@MB=>A =0 >A=>25 A>2?040NI8E @0A>2>-=0F8>=0;L=KE, @5;838>7=KE, B5@@8B>@80;L=KE 8 8=KE >A>15==>AB59 8 8AB>:>2. <dd><b>11.</b> <u>!>N7=8G5A:>5 ?>4A>7=0=85</u> >A=>20=> =0 ?@8=04;56=>AB8 : :0:><C-;81> 4>1@>2>;L=><C A>N7C =0F89, 3>AC40@AB2, >B@060NI5<C 8E >1I85 845>;>38G5A:85, ?>;8B8G5A:85, 2>5==K5 8;8 M:>=><8G5A:85 8=B5@5AK. "0:85 A>N7K, :0: ?@028;>, <>3CB 1KBL D>@<0;87>20=K <563>AC40@AB25==K<8 4>3>2>@0<8 8 A>3;0H5=8O<8. <dd><i>;>10;8ABA:85 ?>4A>7=0=8O 2KAH8E AD5@ A>7=0=8O</i> <dd><b>12.</b> <u>C<0=8AB8G5A:>5 ?>4A>7=0=85 </u>>A=>20=> =0 0=B@>?>F5=B@87<5, =0 >A>7=0=88 A2>59 ?@8=04;56=>AB8 :> 2A5<C '5;>25G5AB2C 2>>1I5 8 : =K=5 682CI5<C ?>:>;5=8N, 2 G0AB=>AB8. '5@57 MB> ?>4A>7=0=85 <K >A>7=0Q< A51O G;5=0<8 548=>3> ?;0=5B0@=>3> A>>1I5AB20, 75<=>9 G5;>25G5A:>9 F828;870F88 :0: F5;>AB=>AB8, >18B0NI59 2 A8;C A;>682H8EAO >1AB>OB5;LAB2 =0 >B45;L=> 27OB>9 ?;0=5B5 5<;O 8 @072820NI59AO 2 5Q 8=D>AD5@=>< ?@>AB@0=AB25 2 AB>@>=C A>25@H5=AB20. ! ?><>ILN MB>3> ?>4A>7=0=8O 2 =0A A 45BAB20 D>@<8@CNBAO >ICI5=8O, ?>72>;ONI85 >B;8G0BL &laquo;E>@>H55&raquo; >B &laquo;?;>E>3>&raquo;, B.5. @07;8G0BL =>>AD5@=CN 8 =530AD5@=CN =0?@02;5==>AB8 @0728B8O. <dd><b>13.</b> <u>;>10;8ABA:>-18>AD5@=>5 ?>4A>7=0=85</u> ?@8ACI5 ?@5645 2A53> M:>;>30<, &laquo;75;Q=K<&raquo;, B.5. B5<, C :>3> A8;L=> @0728B 18>AD5@>F5=B@87<. '5@57 MB> ?>4A>7=0=85 <K >A>7=05< A51O :0: G0ABL 548=>9, @072820NI59AO 18>AD5@K, B.5. 2A59 ?@8@>4K, @07<5AB82H59AO 24>;L ?>25@E=>AB8 75<=>3> H0@0, A10;0=A8@>20==>9 8 2708<>A2O70==>9. <5==> G5@57 MB> ?>4A>7=0=85 C ;N459 2>7=8:05B 8=B5@5A : >:@C60NI59 D;>@5 8 D0C=5, @0AB8B5;L=><C 8 682>B=><C <8@0<, : B09=0< <>@59 8 >:50=>2, : 701>B5 > =K=5 ACI5AB2CNI8E @0AB5=8OE 8 682>B=KE 8 : 2>A?><8=0=8O< > 402=> 2K<5@H8E (<0<>=B0E, 48=>702@0E 8 B.?.). -B> ?>4A>7=0=85 B>;:05B =0A A>74020BL <C758 8 35@10@88, 0:20@8C<K 8 B5@@0@8C<K, A;548BL 70 <03=8B=K<8 1C@O<8, A>;=5G=K<8 2A?KH:0<8, >7>=>2K<8 4K@0<8 8 ?>B5?;5=85< :;8<0B0, 70?@5I0BL 8A?>;L7>20BL D@5>=, ;560BL 4>;3> ?>4 A>;=F5<, ?>2>@0G820BL @5:8, E>@>=8BL, 345 ?>?0;>, E8<8G5A:85 8 O45@=K5 >BE>4K. <dd><b>14.</b> <u>A5;5=A:>5 ?>4A>7=0=85</u> ?@8ACI5 ?@5645 2A53> 0AB@>D878:0<. '5@57 MB> ?>4A>7=0=85 <K >A>7=05< A51O :0: =8GB>6=CN ?> @07<5@0<, => 206=CN ?> 7=0G5=8N G0ABL 3@><04=>9, 15A:>=5G=> ?@>AB8@0NI59AO 240;L A5;5==>9, :>B>@CN =0ABC?8;> 2@5<O >A20820BL (?;0=5B0@=>5 <KH;5=85).  A8;C MB>3> CGQ=K5 ?@>A;CH820NB G5@57 @048>B5;5A:>?K HC<K :>A<>A0, 70?CA:0NBAO :>A<8G5A:85 0??0@0BK, A>740NBAO >@18B0;L=K5 AB0=F88, 8AA;54CNBAO 1;8609H85 : 5<;5 ?;0=5BK. 540;5:> C65 2@5<O =0G0;0 :>;>=870F88, >A2>5=8O 1;8609H59 : =0< G0AB8 A5;5==>9. <dd><b>15.</b> <u>A5<0B5@80;8AB8G5A:>5 ?>4A>7=0=85</u> ?@8ACI5 ?>:0 ?@5645 2A53> D8;>A>D0<-<0B5@80;8AB0<. '5@57 MB> ?>4A>7=0=85 ;N48 2 8B>35 >A>7=0NB A51O :0: G0ABL 548=>3>, 1573@0=8G=>3> <0B5@80;L=>3> <8@0 2> 2A59 53> ?@>AB@0=AB25==>9 15A:>=5G=>AB8, 2@5<5==>9 25G=>AB8, 2> 2AQ< 53> :0G5AB25==>-DC=:F8>=0;L=>< <=>3>>1@0788 1KB8O. </p> <p> <dd>KH5 MB>3>, ?OB=04F0B>3> ?> AGQBC, ?@>4C:B82=>3> ?>4A>7=0=8O 4065 ;CGH85 AB@C:BC@K <>730 A>2@5<5==>3> G5;>25:0 =5A?>A>1=K AA8=B578@>20BL, A35=5@8@>20BL GB>-;81> 5IQ (E>BO >B45;L=K5 >BG0O==K5 D8;>A>DAB2CNI85 C<K ?KB0NBAO <KA;5==> ?@>=8:=CBL C65 4065 70 @0<:8 1KB8O - 2 =51KB85). => - ?@545; 2 @0728B88 A>7=0=8O A>2@5<5==>3> ?>:>;5=8O G5;>25G5AB20, :0: ?@545;>< @07C<0 G5;>25:0 <>65B 1KBL B2>@5=85 H5452@>2  . > GB>1K 8<5BL 2 A2>Q< A>7=0=88 4065 G0ABL 2KH5?5@5G8A;5==KE ?>4A>7=0=89, =5 B>;L:> A0< G5;>25:, => 8 53> @>48B5;8, 0 B0:65 ;CGH85 ?@54AB028B5;8 >:@C60NI53> 53> >1I5AB20 4>;6=K ?@8;>68BL =5<0;> 2>A?8B0B5;L=KE, >1@07>20B5;L=KE 8 ?@>A25I5=G5A:8E CA8;89. <dd><5AB5 A B5<, >1@07>20=85 8 @0728B85 <0B5@80;L=>9 >A=>2K ?>4A>7=0=89 A>7=0=8O G5;>25:0 - 53> 3>;>2=>3> <>730 ?@>B5:05B ?>4 2;8O=85< =5A:>;L:8E D0:B>@>2, >:07K20NI8E =5?>A@54AB25==>5 2>7459AB285 =0 D>@<8@>20=85 :0: 35=>B8?0, B0: 8 D5=>B8?0 :064>3> G5;>25:0: <dd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dd>2. $;C:BC0F8>==K5 <CB0F8>==K5 87<5=5=8O, ?@>8AE>4OI85 A 35=><>< 2 ?@>F5AA5 53> D>@<8@>20=8O. 0 MB8 87<5=5=8O G5;>25: =5 <>65B =8:>8< >1@07>< ?>2;8OBL (5A;8 B>;L:> :;>=8@>20=85<), 8 >=8 <>3CB 1KBL :0: ?>78B82=K<8, B0: 8, GB> @565, =530B82=K<8. <dd>3. $5=>B8?8G5A:85 >A>15==>AB8 >=B>35=570 40==>3> 3>;>2=>3> <>730, B.5. CA;>28O 53> ?8B0=8O, 2>A?8B0=8O 8 >1@07>20=8O (=0?>;=5=85 '!" # ), 8=D>@<0F8>==>3> >15A?5G5=8O, 8=K<8 A;>20<8, B5G5=85 =0 ?@>BO65=88 2A59 53> 687=8 :;5B>G=>3> 8 8=D>@<0F8>==>3> <5B01>;87<>2. '5< ;CGH5 MB8 CA;>28O, G5< A2>52@5<5==59 8 A10;0=A8@>20==59 =01>@ ?8B0B5;L=KE 25I5AB2 8 8=D>@<0F88, :>B>@K5 >= ?>;CG0; 8 ?>;CG05B, G5< ?>;=55 '!"+ # , B5< ?>;>68B5;L=59, ?@>4C:B82=59 =0?@02;5==>ABL 8 2KH5 AB5?5=L @0728B>AB8 A>7=0=8O 40==>3> 8=48284CC<0. <dd>"0:8< >1@07><, GB>1K A>740;8AL 1;03>?@8OB=K5 CA;>28O 4;O D>@<8@>20=8O ?>78B82=>3>, ?@>4C:B82=>3> A>7=0=8O 2KA>:>9 AB5?5=8 @0728B>AB8, =C6=> 8<5BL 1;03>?@8OB=CN <0B5@80;L=CN >A=>2C ?> 2A5< B@Q< ?5@5G8A;5==K< ?0@0<5B@0<, G53> 2 687=8 ?>;CG8BL =5 A>2A5< 8 =5 2A5340 ?@>AB>. @5645 2A53>, B@C4=> :>=B@>;8@>20BL >A>7=0=85 >B25BAB25==>AB8 2A5E @>48B5;59 (B5< 1>;55 2A5E ?@54:>2) 70 35=><K ?>B><:>2 (45B8 70 @>48B5;59 =5 >B25G0NB, 8< ;8HL ?@8E>48BAO AB@040BL, 5A;8 @>48B5;8, ?@54:8 25;8 =54>AB>9=K9 >1@07 687=8) 8 MB> O2;O5BAO >A=>2=>9 ?@8G8=>9 45D5:B>2 35=><>2 8 =0@CH5=89 2 D>@<8@>20=88 3>;>2=>3> <>730 ;N459. $;C:BC0F8>==K5 <CB0F8>==K5 87<5=5=8O 2 >1;0AB8 3>;>2=>3> <>730 <>3CB 1KBL, :0: >B<5G0;>AL, 8 ?>78B82=K<8, 8 =530B82=K<8, E>BO =51>;LH0O =530B82=>ABL <>65B 1KBL 2 :0:>9-B> AB5?5=8 A:>@@5:B8@>20=0 ?>A;54CNI8<8 D5=>B8?8G5A:8<8 CA;>28O<8 >=B>35=570, B.5. ?@028;L=K< 2>A?8B0=85< 8 >1@07>20=85<. <dd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dd>A;8 MB>3> =5 45;05BAO, 5A;8 ?>;>68B5;L=K5, ?@>4C:B82=K5 ?>4A>7=0=8O =5 :C;LB828@CNBAO, =5 ?@82820NBAO 2 ?@>F5AA5 2>A?8B0=8O 8 >1@07>20=8O, =5 @072820NBAO 2 B5G5=85 2A59 687=8 8=482840 ?CBQ< ?>;CG5=8O ?>;=>F5==>9 8=D>@<0F88, B> >1@07>202H85AO =8H8 ?@>872>;L=> 8;8 A;CG09=>AB=> 70?>;=ONBAO ;N1K< 8=D>@<0F8>==K< <CA>@><, A@548 :>B>@>3> 2AB@5G05BAO =5<0;> 2@54=KE 8 ?>@>G=KE M;5<5=B>2. -B>, :AB0B8, 1K;> C65 402=> ?>4<5G5=>. &laquo;0H5<C C<C, - ?8A0; 2 A2>Q 2@5<O ;57 0A:0;L, - A2>9AB25==> 25@8BL, 0 2>;5 - E>B5BL; 8 5A;8 C =8E =5B 4>AB>9=KE ?@54<5B>2 4;O 25@K 8 65;0=8O, >=8 CAB@5<;ONBAO : =54>AB>9=K<&raquo;. <dd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dd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laquo;45AL =5;8H=5 70<5B8BL, GB> 2 ?@>AB>@5G88 ?>=OB85 > 15AA>7=0B5;L=>AB8 8;8 =5?>;=>< A>7=0=88 A<5H8205BAO A 1>;57=5==> 872@0I5==K< A>7=0=85<. "0:, ?@> 4CH52=> 1>;L=>3>, A>45@60=85 A>7=0=8O :>B>@>3> 1>;57=5==> 872@0I5=>, B.5. =0?>;=5=> 2<5AB> 74>@>2KE 8459 =5;5?K<8 ?@54AB02;5=8O<8, >1KG=> 3>2>@OB, GB> >= =0E>48BAO 2 15AA>7=0B5;L=>< 8;8 ?>;CA>7=0B5;L=>< A>AB>O=88. @028;L=55, >4=0:>, 2 MB>< A;CG05 =5 3>2>@8BL 2>2A5 > 15AA>7=0B5;L=>AB8 8;8 =5?>;=>9 AB5?5=8 A>7=0=8O, 0 ;8HL > 1>;57=5==>< 53> A>45@60=88, 8=0G5 3>2>@O, > B>< 8;8 4@C3>< 1>;57=5==>< 872@0I5=88 A>7=0=8O&raquo;. <dd>530?>4A>7=0=8O, :0: 8 ?>@>G=K5 ?>=OB8O, @072820NBAO 2> 2@5<5=8 ?> 0=0;>38G=>9 F5?>G:5, GB> 8 ?>78B82=K5 ?>4A>7=0=8O (8;8 >1KG=K5 ?>=OB8O), 2 A2O78 A G5< ?@>F5AA 8E D>@<8@>20=8O <0;> G5< >B;8G0NBAO >B D>@<8@>20=8O =>>AD5@=KE 0=0;>3>2. </p> <p> <dd>"0:8< >1@07><, 2 @57C;LB0B5 =530AD5@=>3> 2>7459AB28O =0 8=D>@<0F8>==K9 <5B01>;87< C G0AB8 ;N459 ?@>8AE>48B =0@CH5=85 53> =>@<0;L=>3> B5G5=8O 8 2 8E ?A8E>B8?0E =0G8=0NB D>@<8@>20BLAO 45AB@C:B82=K5, >B@8F0B5;L=K5 =530?>4A>7=0=8O, B.5. 2 AB>@>=C &laquo;725@>G5;>25G5A:>3>&raquo;, ?0B>;>38G5A:8 =574>@>2>3> =0?@02;5=8O, : :>B>@K< >B=>AOBAO (2A5 A> 7=0:>< - ): <dd><b>0.</b> <u>!:>BA:>5 ?>4A>7=0=85</u> O2;O5BAO ?@>B82>?>;>6=K< ?@8<8B82=><C A0<>A>7=0=8N 8 A;C68B ?5@2K< ?@87=0:>< 453@040F88 8 A;01>C<8O 8=482840. @>O2;O5BAO, ?@5645 2A53>, 2 >A;01;5=88 74>@>2KE 8=AB8=:B>2 A0<>A>E@0=5=8O =865 682>B=>3> C@>2=O, B.5. 2 =5A>1;N45=88 ;8G=>9 8 >1I5AB25==>9 38385=K, B5@?8<>AB8 : 3@O78, 2 ?@8AB@0AB88 : B010:C, 2 0;:>3>;L=>9, B>:A8G5A:>9 8 =0@:>B8G5A:>9 7028A8<>AB8, 2 4@C38E ?@87=0:0E ?@5=51@565=8O A>1AB25==K< 74>@>2L5<, 2:;NG0O ?5@5540=85 8 38?>48=0<8N, 2 =565;0=88 8<5BL ?>B><AB2> 8;8 2>A?8BK20BL 53>, 701>B8BLAO > =Q< (8=K<8 A;>20<8, 2 B><, G53> =5 ?>72>;ONB A515 4065 682>B=K5 8 725@8). <dd><b>1.</b> <u>518;870F8>==>5 (:@8<8=0;878@>20==>5) ?>4A>7=0=85</u> O2;O5BAO =0@CH5==K< 8;8 =54>@0728BK< ;8G=>AB=K< ?>4A>7=0=85<, 2 A8;C G53> G5;>25: B5@O5B ?@02> >B=>A8BLAO : G8A;C Homo sapiens 8 4065 =07K20BLAO <i>G5;>25:><</i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dd><i>57>@30=870F8>==>-45AB018;878@CNI85 >1I5AB25==K5 =530?>4A>7=0=8O</i> <dd><b>2.</b> <u>0@CH5==>5 A5<59=>5, 8;8 @0A?CB=>5 ?>4A>7=0=85</u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i>3@0640=AB25==>AB8</i> 8 <i>?0B@8>B87<0</i>. <dd><b>3.</b> <u>0F8>=0;8AB8G5A:0O >;83>D@5=8O</u> 8<55B 425 =574>@>2K5 B5=45=F88, 254CI85 : =0F8>=0;8AB8G5A:><C 2K@>645=8N: <dd>0) ?>B5@O GC2AB20 B.=. &laquo;<5AB=>3> ?0B@8>B87<0&raquo; - :>340 8=48284CC< >B=>A8BAO A ?@5=51@565=85< : A2>59 =0@>4=>AB8, A2>5<C :@0N (<0;>9 @>48=5), =5 ?@>O2;O5B 8=B5@5A0 : :C;LBC@5 8 >1KG0O< A2>59 =0F8>=0;L=>AB8, =5 E@0=8B 2 ?0<OB8 5Q B@048F88 8 CAB>8, =5 >:07K205B ?>445@6:8 8=48284CC<0< B>9 65, GB> 8 C =53>, @0A>2>-AC1MB=8G5A:>9 ?@8=04;56=>AB8; <dd>1) =0F8>=0;8AB8G5A:89 M:AB@5<87< - :>340 8=48284CC< 2>72KH05B A2>N =0@>4=>ABL =04 2A5<8 >AB0;L=K<8 8 >3C;L=> AG8B05B A2>N =0F8>=0;L=>ABL 2KH5 2A5E 4@C38E =0F8>=0;L=>AB59. "0:>3> @>40 ?A8E8?0B8G5A:85 >B:;>=5=8O =0 =0F8>=0;8AB8G5A:>9 >A=>25, =>AOI85 <0AA>2K9 8;8 ?0@0=>840;L=K9 E0@0:B5@, ?@8=OB> =07K20BL <i>=0F87<><</i>, <i>H>28=87<><</i> 8;8 <i>D0H87<><</i>. <dd><b>4.</b> <u>@5ABC?=>->1J548=8B5;L=>5 (:@8<8=>35==878@>20==>5) ?>4A>7=0=85</u> >A=>20=> =0 40;L=59H5< @0728B88 ?5@2>1KB=>-A:>BA:>3> 8 4518;870F8>==KE ?>4A>7=0=89 2 @0<:0E :0:>9-;81> 35>3@0D8G5A:>9 <5AB=>AB8 - A5;0, 3>@>40, >1;0AB8, :@0O, 8=>340 2 @0<:0E 2A59 AB@0=K. 57C;LB0B>< ?@>O2;5=8O 40==>3>, 1>;55 &laquo;?@>428=CB>3>&raquo; 2840 ?>4A>7=0=8O <>6=> AG8B0BL ?>O2;5=85 <5AB=KE H05: &laquo;?0F0=>2&raquo;, 10=48BA:8E 3@C?? - &laquo;1@0B2K&raquo;, 4@C38E <0D8>7=>-?@5ABC?=KE >1@07>20=89 2?;>BL 4> :@C?=KE 10=4D>@<8@>20=89 (>@30=87>20==KE ?@5ABC?=KE 3@C??8@>2>: -  8 B.?.), 2@0AB0NI8E 2 >@30=K <5AB=>9 2;0AB8 8 ?@02>>E@0=8B5;L=K5 >@30=K 8 4065 ?@>=8:0NI8E 2 >@30=K 3>AC40@AB25==>3> C?@02;5=8O ;N1>3>, 2?;>BL 4> A0<>3> 2KA>:>3> C@>2=O. <dd><b>5.</b> <u>$0=0BA:>5, 2:;NG0O D0=0B8G=>-@5;838>7=>5, ?>4A>7=0=85</u> 2K7K205B :@09=85 ?@>O2;5=8O C2;5G5=8O G5<-;81>, ?>G8B0=8O :>3>-;81>, 2:;NG0O 871KB>: @5;838>7=KE GC2AB2, 84>;>?>:;>=AB2>.  B0:>3> @>40 =574>@>2K< >1I5AB25==K< >B:;>=5=8O< A;54C5B >B=5AB8 1>;57=5==K5 284K C2;5G5=8O :0:8<-;81> ?52F><, A :>B>@>3> @2CB >4564K, :0:>9-B> @>:- 8;8 4@C3>9 <C7K:0;L=>9 3@C??>9, E>::55<, DCB1>;><, ?@>O2;ONI85AO 2 48:8E 2KABC?;5=8OE &laquo;D0=>2&raquo; =0 AB048>=0E 8 C;8F0E. !N40 65 <>6=> ?@8G8A;8BL 2A52>7<>6=K5 M:AB@5<8ABA:85 @5;838>7=K5 A5:BK, ?@>?>254CNI85 3;02=K< >1@07>< <@0:>15A85, ?@>G85 D0=0B8G=>-M:AB@5<8ABA:85 D>@<8@>20=8O, 2 :>B>@KE ?@>8AE>48B ?03C1=>5 2;8O=85 =0 =574>@>2CN 8;8 =5AB>9:CN ?A8E8:C >B45;L=KE 8=48284>2. @8<5@0<8 B><C A;C60B A>2@5<5==K5 =0< <CAC;L<0=A:85 M:AB@5<8ABK (20EE018BK, B0;81K 8 B.4.), 853>28ABK 8 B.?.  MB>B 65 A?8A>: <>6=> A C25@5==>ABLN 2:;NG8BL AB>@>==8:>2 >3>;B5;>3>, 2>8=AB2CNI53> 0B587<0. <dd><b>6.</b> <u>@>D5AA8>=0;L=>-CB@0G5==>5 ?>4A>7=0=85</u> <>6=> >1=0@C68BL C ;N459, 70=8<0NI8EAO 2@548B5;LA:>9 :>=:C@5=F859, B.5. ?@>872>4OI8E ?>445;:8, 8<8B0F88, E0;BC@C, D0;LH82CN ?@>4C:F8N (2:;NG0O D0;LH82><>=5BG8:>2, ?@>872>48B5;59 AC@@>30B=KE A?8@B=KE =0?8B:>2, ?0@DN<5@88, ?@>4>2>;LAB25==KE B>20@>2, D0;LH82KE 4@03>F5==>AB59 8 :0@B8=, :><?0:B-48A:>2 8 ?@>G55), 0 B0:65 C HB@59:1@5E5@>2. <dd><b>7.</b> <u>>@?>@0B82=>-8A:065==>5 ?>4A>7=0=85</u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dd><i>?>;8B8G=>-<5I0=A:85 =530?>4A>7=0=8O >1I5AB25==>3> A>7=0=8O</i> <dd><b>8.</b> <u>5845>;>3878@>20==>5 ?>4A>7=0=85</u> A:07K205BAO 2 >BACBAB288 :0:8E-;81> ?>;8B8G5A:8E 8=B5@5A>2 (0?>;8B8G=>AB8), 157CG0AB=>AB8 : ?@>8AE>4OI8< 2 AB@0=5 8 2 <8@5 A>1KB8O<, 8=D0=B8;L=>->1K20B5;LA:>< >B=>H5=88 :> 2A5<C ?@>8AE>4OI5<C 2>:@C3, 2 =5C<5=88 @07>1@0BLAO 2 845OE 8 ?@8=F8?0E, ?@>?>254C5<KE ?>;8B8G5A:8<8 ?0@B8O<8, =565;0=88 ?@8<:=CBL : :0:>9-;81> ?>78B82=>9 >1I5AB25==>-?>;8B8G5A:>9 >@30=870F88 8;8, =0?@>B82, 2 ?>445@6:5 B0:8E, 2@54 >B :>B>@KE 4;O @0728B8O >1I5AB20 >G52845=, 8 B.4. <dd><b>9.</b> <u>=B8=0F8>=0;L=>5 ?>4A>7=0=85</u> O2;O5BAO 2KAH59 D>@<>9 CB@0BK GC2AB20 ?0B@8>B87<0, >ICI5=8O ?@8=04;56=>AB8 : A2>5<C B5G5AB2C. 0G8=05BAO A B>3>, GB> C B0:>3> @>40 &laquo;3@0640=&raquo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dd><b>10.</b> <u>&828;870F8>==>5 =54><KA;85</u> =5 ?>72>;O5B >ACI5AB2;OBL >1J548=5=85 8 @0728B85 40==>9, >7=0G5==>9 ?> B5< 8;8 8=K< ?@87=0:0<, F828;870F88 8 A>>B25BAB25==>5 :>A25==>5 CA8;5=85 2E>4OI8E 2 =5Q =0@>4>2 8 =0F89. @8<5@>< @0A?040NI8EAO 2 ?>A;54=55 2@5<O F828;870F89 A;C68B F828;870F8O A;02O=. <dd><b>11.</b> <u>!>N7=8G5A:>5 =54><KA;85</u> ?>4@K205B ?@58<CI5AB20, ?>;CG05<K5 >B A>N7=8G5A:8E >B=>H5=89 (?5@2>9 AB0488 548=5=8O) A>>B25BAB2CNI8E =0@>4>2, =0F89 8 3>AC40@AB2. @8<5@0<8 <>3CB A;C68BL @0A?04K AB@0= 0@H02A:>3> 4>3>2>@0, @5A?C1;8: !>25BA:>3> !>N70, AB@0= !. <dd><i>=B83;>10;8ABA:85 =530?>4A>7=0=8O</i> <dd><b>12.</b> <u>=B83C<0=8AB8G5A:>5 ?>4A>7=0=85</u> >7=0G05B 2KAHCN D>@<C =530AD5@=>3> 2>7459AB28O =0 G5;>25:0, GB> ?@>O2;O5BAO 2 53> 459AB28OE, E0@0:B5@87C5<KE :0: ?@5ABC?;5=8O ?@>B82 G5;>25G5AB20.  =8< <>6=> >B=5AB8 A>740=85 8 C3@>7C ?@8<5=5=8O >@C68O <0AA>2>3> ?>@065=8O, 87>1@5B5=85 8 @0A?@>AB@0=5=85 E8<8:0B>2, 10:B5@89 8 1>;57=59, AB02OI8E =0 3@0=L C=8GB>65=8O C=8:0;L=CN 75<=CN G5;>25G5A:CN F828;870F8N. !;01K5 ?@>O2;5=8O 40==>3> ?>4A>7=0=8O 2K@060NBAO 2 =5A?>A>1=>AB8 8=482840 @07;8G8BL 2 8=D>AD5@=>< ?>B>:5 =>>AD5@=>5 8 =530AD5@=>5 =0?@02;5=8O, 2845=85 2A53> 2 =530AD5@=><, =51;03>?@8OB=>< A25B5 (?>AB>O==>5 >6840=85 0?>:0;8?A8A0). <dd><b>13.</b> <u>5@0728B>5 3;>10;8ABA:>-18>AD5@=>5 ?>4A>7=0=85</u> 2K7K205B 459AB28O, =0=>AOI85 2@54 18>AD5@5, B.5. 75<=>9 ?@8@>45 (=54@0<, 2>40<, 0B<>AD5@5), G0ABLN :>B>@>9 O2;O5BAO G5;>25:, 5Q :0: ?@><KH;5==>5, B0: 8 1KB>2>5 703@O7=5=85, 70A>@5=85, 70<CA>@820=85.  B0:>3> @>40 459AB28O< A;54C5B ?@8G8A;OBL =5 B>;L:> 70<CA>@820=85 ;5A>2, @5G=KE 8 >75@=KE 2>4>Q<>2, 0:20B>@89 <>@59, => 8 ?@>AB> C;8F, 42>@>2 10=:0<8, 1CBK;:0<8, ?><>O<8, 2@54=K<8 A;820<8, E8<8G5A:8<8 >BE>40<8 8 B.?. <dd><b>14.</b> BACBAB285 <u>2A5;5=A:>3> ?>4A>7=0=8O</u> 254QB : =5?>=8<0=8N =5>1E>48<>AB8 ?>43>B>2:8 : :>;>=870F88 :>A<>A0 :0: A?>A>10 =5 B>;L:> A>E@0=5=8O G5;>25G5AB20, => 8 ?>8A:0 8 >A2>5=8O 2>7<>6=KE =>2KE A@54 >18B0=8O G5;>25:0 2 1;87;560I8E >1;0ABOE A5;5==>9, 70459AB2>20=85 2 53> @0728B88 B@5BL59 3;>10;L=>9 A>AB02;ONI59 (?>A;5 <i>2@5<5=8</i> 8 <i>:0G5AB20</i>) - <i>?@>AB@0=AB20</i>. <dd><b>15.</b> BACBAB285 <u>2A5<0B5@80;8AB8G5A:>3> ?>4A>7=0=8O</u> 40QB ?@>AB>@ E>645=8N @07;8G=KE 0=B85AB5AB5AB25==>-=0CG=KE 8459 8 B5>@89, 70B@C4=OO G5;>25G5AB2C :>=F5=B@8@>20BL A2>8 CA8;8O =0 @07@01>B:5 8AB8==KE =0?@02;5=89 2 =0C:5 2 @0:C@A5 <0B5@80;8AB8G5A:>9 480;5:B8:8. </p> <p> <dd>?>;=5 5AB5AB25==>, GB> AB5?5=L @0728B>AB8 ;N1>3> ?>4A>7=0=8O, :0: ?>;>68B5;L=>3>, B0: 8 >B@8F0B5;L=>3>, 25AL<0 @07;8G=0 C :064>3> 8=482840 - >B ?>;=>3> >BACBAB28O 4> =0;8G8O 2 A0<>9 0:B82=>9 D>@<5, 8 ?@>O2;O5BAO (@5D;5:A8@C5BAO) G5@57 53> ?>ABC?:8, AC645=8O, >1@07 687=8 8 :C;LBC@C ?>2545=8O. 5EB5@52 B0: ?8H5B >1 MB><: &laquo; ?0B>;>38G5A:8E A;CG0OE, 2 >A>15==>AB8 ?@8 4CH52=KE 1>;57=OE, AB5?5=L A>7=0B5;L=>AB8 ?A8E8G5A:8E ?@>F5AA>2, :>=5G=>, 87<5=O5BAO 5IQ 2 1>;55 7=0G8B5;L=KE ?@545;0E, =565;8 C 74>@>2KE ;8F. 5>1K:=>25==> O@:85 ?@54AB02;5=8O <0=LO:0, =0?@8<5@, =5 <>3CB 1KBL 8 A@02=8<K A :@09=5 154=K<8 >1@070<8, A<CB=> ?@>1530NI8<8 2 A>7=0=88 A;01>C<=>3>. <dd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dd>>7=0:><82H8AL A B5<, GB> A;54C5B ?>=8<0BL ?>4 A>7=0=85< 8 :0:85 AB5?5=8 ?>A;54=53> <>3CB 1KBL @07;8G8<K, <K B5?5@L 65 70<5B8<, GB> 40;5:> =5 2A5 87 2>A?@8=8<05<KE =0<8 872=5 2?5G0B;5=89 A>7=0B5;L=K. 0?@>B82 B>3>, >3@><=0O G0ABL 2=5H=8E 2?5G0B;5=89 >AB0QBAO 70 ?>@>3>< A>7=0=8O 8 B>;L:> >B=>A8B5;L=> 25AL<0 <0;0O 8E G0ABL 4>AB8305B A>7=0B5;L=>9 AD5@K.  A2>N >G5@54L, 87 2?5G0B;5=89, 4>AB83H8E A>7=0B5;L=>9 AD5@K, G0ABL >AB0QBAO 2 BQ<=>< ?>;5 A>7=0=8O 8 B>;L:> >AB0;L=0O, >B=>A8B5;L=> =57=0G8B5;L=0O G0ABL 2KABC?05B 2 =0H5< A>7=0=88 A 1>;LH59 O@:>ABLN&raquo;. <dd>>MB><C 4;O >?@545;5=8O AB5?5=8 @0728B>AB8 B>3> 8;8 8=>3> ?>4A>7=0=8O 2KH5 &plusmn;1, 2K@060NI59AO 2 045:20B=>9 53> @5D;5:A88, 2254Q< A?5F80;L=CN H:0;C 10 AB5?5=59 @0728B>AB8 ?>4A>7=0=89, 0 8<5==>: <dd><div align="left">>MB><C 4;O >?@545;5=8O AB5?5=8 @0728B>AB8 B>3> 8;8 8=>3> ?>4A>7=0=8O 2KH5 <nobr><img src="../../images/symm04.gif" height="15" width="13" border="0">1</nobr>, 2K@060NI59AO 2 045:20B=>9 53> @5D;5:A88, 22545< A?5F80;L=CN H:0;C 10 AB5?5=59 @0728B>AB8 ?>4A>7=0=89, 0 8<5==>:</div></p> </blockquote><center> <p><table cellpadding="5" cellspacing="2" border="1" width="90%"> <tr><td width="25%" valign="middle"><b>1.</b> !;01> 2K@065==>5</td> <td rowspan="2" width="65%" valign="middle">>1I55 ?>=8<0=85 8 >4>1@5=85 ACI5AB20 ?>=OB89 40==>3> ?>4A>7=0=8O;</td></tr> <tr><td width="25%" valign="middle"><b>2.</b> !8;L=> 2K@065==>5</td> </tr> <tr><td width="25%" valign="middle"><b>3.</b> !;01> 2K@065==0O</td> <td rowspan="2" width="65%" valign="middle">2=CB@5==OO ?>B@51=>ABL >ACI5AB2;OBL A>>1I0 :0:85-;81> A>>B25BAB2CNI85 459AB28O;</td></tr> <tr><td width="25%" valign="middle"><b>4.</b> !8;L=> 2K@065==0O</td> </tr> <tr><td width="25%" valign="middle"><b>5.</b> !;010O</td> <td rowspan="2" width="65%" valign="middle">?>445@6:0 >1I5AB25==KE >@30=870F89, A>740==KE =0 1075 40==>3> ?>4A>7=0=8O;</td></tr> <tr><td width="25%" valign="middle"><b>6.</b> :B82=0O</td> </tr> <tr><td width="25%" valign="middle"><b>7.</b> !;01>5</td> <td rowspan="2" width="65%" valign="middle">CG0AB85 2 C:070==KE >@30=870F8OE;</td></tr> <tr><td width="25%" valign="middle"><b>8.</b> :B82=>5</td> </tr> <tr><td colspan="2" width="90%" valign="middle"><b>9.</b> @30=870F8>==0O 45OB5;L=>ABL 2 C:070==KE >@30=870F8OE;</td></tr> <tr><td colspan="2" width="90%" valign="middle"><b>10.</b> 07@01>B:0 8459 8;8 ;845@AB2> 2 C:070==KE >@30=870F8OE.</td></tr> </tr></table></p> </center><blockquote> <p><dd><div align="left">;O ;CGH53> ?@54AB02;5=8O A@548==>9, =081>;55 206=>9 8 >1J5<=>9 G0AB8 A>7=0=8O @0AA<>B@8< ?>4@>1=55 F5=B@0;L=K9 CG0AB>: 53> :;0AA8D8:0F88, 345 M;5<5=BK A0<>A>7=0=8O 8 ;8G=>AB=>3> ?>4A>7=0=8O 8=48284>2 2K3;O4OB A;54CNI8< >1@07><:</div></p> </blockquote><center> <p><table width="90%" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0"> <tr><td align="right" valign="top"><nobr>+1</nobr></td> <td><img src="../../images/dot4x1.gif" height="1" width="4" border="0"></td> <td background="../../images/axbkg.gif" valign="top"><img src="../../images/level_y.gif" height="22" width="24" border="0"></td> <td valign="top"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0"><tr> <td valign="top"><img src="../../images/levelb_y.gif" height="22" width="191" border="0"></td> <td><img src="../../images/dot4x1.gif" height="1" width="4" border="0"></td> <td valign="top"><i><b>&quot;8=B5;;835=B&quot;</b> - ?@>A25I5=85 4@C38E,<br> A>G8=5=85 8 @0A?@>AB@0=5=85 2KAH8E 7=0=89</i></td></tr></table></td> <td rowspan="13"><img src="../../images/dot4x1.gif" height="1" width="4" border="0"></td> <td rowspan="13" valign="middle"><img src="../../images/arrow1.gif" height="182" width="12" border="0"></td> <td rowspan="13" valign="middle"><i>>3>G5;>25G5A:0O =0?@02;5==>ABL @0728B8O A>7=0=8O =>@<0;L=KE ;N459</i></td></tr> <tr><td align="right" valign="top">3</td> <td><img src="../../images/dot4x1.gif" height="1" width="4" border="0"></td> <td background="../../images/axbkg.gif" valign="top"><img src="../../images/level_y.gif" height="22" width="24" border="0"></td> <td valign="top" align="center"><b><u>>78B82=0O MAB5B8:0</u></b></td></tr> <tr><td>&nbsp;</td> <td><img src="../../images/dot4x1.gif" height="1" width="4" border="0"></td> <td background="../../images/axbkg.gif">&nbsp;</td> <td align="left" valign="top">>A?8B0=85 8 @0728B85 2:CA0 8 ;N128 : ?@5:@0A=><C, 2KA>:85 <KA;8 G5@57 ?>M78N, :;0AA8:C 2 <C7K:5, 682>?8A8, A:C;L?BC@5 8 B.4. -B> 4>;6=> =09B8 >B@065=85 2 C:@0H5=88 A2>53> 68;8I0, <5AB0 @01>BK, A@54K >18B0=8O, >4564K, G0AB>B5 ?>A5I5=8O B50B@>2, <C7552, 2KAB02>:, :>=A5@20B>@89, @0728B88 :C;LBC@K.</td></tr> <tr><td align="right" valign="top">2</td> <td><img src="../../images/dot4x1.gif" height="1" width="4" border="0"></td> <td background="../../images/axbkg.gif" valign="top"><img src="../../images/level_y.gif" height="22" width="24" border="0"></td> <td valign="top" align="center"><b><u>>;57=K5 =02K:8 8 ;N18B5;LAB2> (E>118)</u></b></td></tr> <tr><td>&nbsp;</td> <td><img src="../../images/dot4x1.gif" height="1" width="4" border="0"></td> <td background="../../images/axbkg.gif">&nbsp;</td> <td align="left" valign="top">"2>@G5AB2> 8 87>1@5B0B5;LAB2>, ?CB5H5AB28O, A>18@0B5;LAB2> 8 :>;;5:F8>=8@>20=85 (<0@>:, <>=5B 8 B.?.), CG0AB85 2 1;03>B2>@8B5;L=>AB8, C<5=85 GB>-B> A<0AB5@8BL, 1KB>20O B5E=8:0, 02B>;N18B5;LAB2>, A?>@B82=K5 83@K 8 B.4.</td></tr> <tr><td align="right" valign="top">1</td> <td><img src="../../images/dot4x1.gif" height="1" width="4" border="0"></td> <td background="../../images/axbkg.gif" valign="top"><img src="../../images/level_y.gif" height="22" width="24" border="0"></td> <td valign="top" align="center"><b><u>!>7840B5;L=K9 ?@>D5AA8>=0;87<</u></b></td></tr> <tr><td>&nbsp;</td> <td><img src="../../images/dot4x1.gif" height="1" width="4" border="0"></td> <td background="../../images/axbkg.gif">&nbsp;</td> <td align="left" valign="top">@>D5AA8>=0;L=>5 8 =0CG=>5 >1@07>20=85, 87CG5=85, ?@8<5=5=85 8 @0728B85 7=0=89 8 =02K:>2, <0:A8<0;L=> A>>B25BAB2CNI8E 35=5B8G5A:8< A?>A>1=>ABO< 8=482840 4;O DC=:F8>=8@>20=8O =0 1;03> >1I5AB20.</td></tr> <tr><td align="right" valign="top">0</td> <td><img src="../../images/dot4x1.gif" height="1" width="4" border="0"></td> <td background="../../images/axbkg.gif" valign="top"><img src="../../images/level_y.gif" height="22" width="24" border="0"></td> <td valign="top" align="center"><b><u>>78B82=0O MB8:0</u></b></td></tr> <tr><td>&nbsp;</td> <td><img src="../../images/dot4x1.gif" height="1" width="4" border="0"></td> <td background="../../images/axbkg.gif">&nbsp;</td> <td align="left" valign="top">>A?8B0=85 8 A0<>2>A?8B0=85 ?>;>68B5;L=KE G5@B E0@0:B5@0, 2K@01>B:0 ?@028;L=KE <0=5@ >1I5AB25==>3> ?>2545=8O, 2 B.G. 256;82>ABL, B@C4>;N185, 4>1@>B0, G5AB=>ABL, A>AB@040=85, =@02AB25==>ABL, A>25AB;82>ABL, 3>@4>ABL, ?@02482>ABL, ?0B@8>B87<, C2065=85 : 1>;55 AB0@H8<, C2065=85 : 1>;55 C<=K<, A=8AE>48B5;L=>ABL : <5=55 C<=K<, 65;0=85 8 C<5=85 4C<0BL, @07<KH;OBL, 3@0<>B=>ABL (7=0=85 @>4=>3> 8 8=KE O7K:>2), ?@>A25I5==>ABL.</td></tr> <tr><td align="right" valign="top"><nobr>+0</nobr></td> <td><img src="../../images/dot4x1.gif" height="1" width="4" border="0"></td> <td background="../../images/axbkg.gif" valign="top"><img src="../../images/level_y.gif" height="22" width="24" border="0"></td> <td valign="top"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0"><tr> <td valign="top"><img src="../../images/levelb_y.gif" height="22" width="191" border="0"></td> <td><img src="../../images/dot4x1.gif" height="1" width="4" border="0"></td> <td valign="top"><i><b>&quot;Homo sapiens&quot;</b> - G5;>25: @07C<=K9</i></td></tr></table></td></tr> <tr><td align="right" valign="top">&nbsp;</td> <td><img src="../../images/dot4x1.gif" height="1" width="4" border="0"></td> <td background="../../images/axbkg.gif" valign="top">&nbsp;</td> <td valign="top" align="center"><b><u>4>@>2L5</u></b></td></tr> <tr><td>&nbsp;</td> <td><img src="../../images/dot4x1.gif" height="1" width="4" border="0"></td> <td background="../../images/axbkg.gif">&nbsp;</td> <td align="left" valign="top">=0=85 CAB@>9AB20 A2>53> >@30=87<0, > ?>;L75 8 2@545 ?8I8, AB@5<;5=85 : 74>@>2><C >1@07C 687=8, >A=>20==><C =0 74>@>2>9 ?8I5, D878G5A:>9 :C;LBC@5, 38385=5, ?A8E8:5, : D878G5A:><C A>25@H5=AB2C, 701>B0 > ?>B><AB25, > 53> 74>@>2L5, 8 B.4.</td></tr> <tr><td>&nbsp;</td> <td><img src="../../images/dot4x1.gif" height="1" width="4" border="0"></td> <td><img src="../../images/crosxy1.gif" height="37" width="24" border="0"></td> <td><img src="../../images/scalex1.gif" height="37" width="632" border="0"></td></tr> </table></p> </center><blockquote> <p><dd><div align="left">@8 >B@8F0B5;L=>9, 45AB@C:B82=>9 =0?@02;5==>AB8 2 @0728B88 A>7=0=8O 8=482840 =01>@ 7=0=89, CAB@5<;5=89, G5@B E0@0:B5@0, <0=5@K 53> ?>2545=8O @078B5;L=> >B;8G0NBAO >B ?@82545==KE 2KH5 =>@<:</div></p> </blockquote><center> <p><table width="90%" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0"> <tr><td>&nbsp;</td> <td><img src="../../images/dot4x1.gif" height="1" width="4" border="0"></td> <td><img src="../../images/crosxy2.gif" height="37" width="24" border="0"></td> <td><img src="../../images/scalex2.gif" height="37" width="632" border="0"></td> <td rowspan="13"><img src="../../images/dot4x1.gif" height="1" width="4" border="0"></td> <td rowspan="13" valign="middle"><img src="../../images/arrow2.gif" height="182" width="12" border="0"></td> <td rowspan="13" valign="middle"><i>25@>G5;>25G5A:0O =0?@02;5==>ABL @0728B8O A>7=0=8O =5=>@<0;L=KE ;N459</i></td></tr> <tr><td align="right" valign="top">&nbsp;</td> <td><img src="../../images/dot4x1.gif" height="1" width="4" border="0"></td> <td background="../../images/axbkg.gif" valign="top">&nbsp;</td> <td valign="top" align="center"><b><u>574>@>2L5</u></b></td></tr> <tr><td>&nbsp;</td> <td><img src="../../images/dot4x1.gif" height="1" width="4" border="0"></td> <td background="../../images/axbkg.gif">&nbsp;</td> <td align="left" valign="top">52565AB2> 2 7=0=8OE > A2>5< >@30=87<5, ?@5=51@565=85 : A2>5<C 74>@>2LN, ?>@>G=K9 >1@07 687=8 2A;54AB285 ?>425@65==>AB8 >4=>9 8;8 =5A:>;L:8< 2@54=K< ?@82KG:0< (:C@5=8N, =0@:><0=88, 0;:>3>;87<C), ?A8E8G5A:0O =5C@02=>25H5==>ABL, =5@071>@G82>ABL 8 =5C<5@5==>ABL 2 ?8I5, 38?>48=0<8O, 157701>B=>ABL > 74>@>2L5 ?>B><AB20 8 B.4. @09=55 ?@>O2;5=85 - ?>AO30B5;LAB2> =0 A0<>C189AB2>.</td></tr> <tr><td align="right" valign="top"><nobr>-0</nobr></td> <td><img src="../../images/dot4x1.gif" height="1" width="4" border="0"></td> <td background="../../images/axbkg.gif" valign="top"><img src="../../images/level_y.gif" height="22" width="24" border="0"></td> <td valign="top"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0"><tr> <td valign="top"><img src="../../images/levelb_y.gif" height="22" width="191" border="0"></td> <td><img src="../../images/dot4x1.gif" height="1" width="4" border="0"></td> <td valign="top"><i><b>&quot;A:>B>ACI5AB2>&quot;</b></i></td></tr></table></td></tr> <tr><td align="right" valign="top"><nobr>-0</nobr></td> <td><img src="../../images/dot4x1.gif" height="1" width="4" border="0"></td> <td background="../../images/axbkg.gif" valign="top"><img src="../../images/level_y.gif" height="22" width="24" border="0"></td> <td valign="top" align="center"><b><u>530B82=0O MB8:0</u></b></td></tr> <tr><td>&nbsp;</td> <td><img src="../../images/dot4x1.gif" height="1" width="4" border="0"></td> <td background="../../images/axbkg.gif">&nbsp;</td> <td align="left" valign="top">52>A?8B0==>ABL, ?5@5E>4OI0O 2 :@09=85 D>@<K: A:25@=>A;>285, EC;830=AB2>, 3@C1>ABL 2 >1@0I5=88. 5C<5=85 25AB8 A51O 2 >1I5AB25, A:;>==>ABL : >1<0=C 8 2>@>2AB2C, ?@5=51@565=85 : =>@<0< >1I5AB25==>3> ?>2545=8O. 5=>ABL, B@CA;82>ABL, =5256;82>ABL, 7028AB;82>ABL, BI5A;02=>ABL, 0<>@0;L=>ABL, ?>H;>ABL, 7;>ABL, 15AA>25AB=>ABL, 15AA5@45G=>ABL, 604=>ABL, A:;>==>ABL : <>H5==8G5AB2C, =5C2065=85 : 1>;55 C<=K<, =5C2065=85 : AB0@H8<, =565;0=85 4C<0BL, =5>14C<0==>ABL 459AB289, =5C<5=85 @07<KH;OBL, 1573@0<>B=>ABL, ;682>ABL, A?>A>1=>ABL 8718BL G5;>25:0, A?>A>1=>ABL C<5@B28BL (C18BL) 682>B=>5. @09=55 ?@>O2;5=85 - A?>A>1=>ABL C<5@B28BL (C18BL) G5;>25:0.</td></tr> <tr><td align="right" valign="top"><nobr>-1</nobr></td> <td><img src="../../images/dot4x1.gif" height="1" width="4" border="0"></td> <td background="../../images/axbkg.gif" valign="top"><img src="../../images/level_y.gif" height="22" width="24" border="0"></td> <td valign="top" align="center"><b><u>'5@=K9, @07@CH8B5;L=K9 ?@>D5AA8>=0;87<</u></b></td></tr> <tr><td>&nbsp;</td> <td><img src="../../images/dot4x1.gif" height="1" width="4" border="0"></td> <td background="../../images/axbkg.gif">&nbsp;</td> <td align="left" valign="top">!:;>==>ABL 8=482840 : 87CG5=8N =530B82=KE 7=0=89 8 ?@8>1@5B5=8N =530B82=KE =02K:>2, 2 @57C;LB0B5 :>B>@KE C =53> ?@>O2;ONBAO 8 @072820NBAO A?>A>1=>AB8 : 2>@>2AB2C, 6C;L=8G5AB2C, <>H5==8G5AB2C, @>AB>2I8G5AB2C, 3@0156C, ?8@0BAB2C, 27OB>G=8G5AB2C, :07=>:@04AB2C, @M:5B8@AB2C, 27OB8N 70;>6=8:>2, 83>@=><C 8 =0@:>187=5AC 8 B.?.</td></tr> <tr><td align="right" valign="top"><nobr>-2</nobr></td> <td><img src="../../images/dot4x1.gif" height="1" width="4" border="0"></td> <td background="../../images/axbkg.gif" valign="top"><img src="../../images/level_y.gif" height="22" width="24" border="0"></td> <td valign="top" align="center"><b><u>@548B5;LA:85 ?>ABC?:8</u></b></td></tr> <tr><td>&nbsp;</td> <td><img src="../../images/dot4x1.gif" height="1" width="4" border="0"></td> <td background="../../images/axbkg.gif">&nbsp;</td> <td align="left" valign="top">>;57=5==K5 C2;5G5=8O (<0=LO:8), ?@>O2;5=8O 87>I@5==>3> 20=40;87<0, A>18@0=85 H5452@>2 2 G0AB=K5 :>;;5:F88, A>25@H5=85 2A53> ?>4;>3> 8 304:>3>, B5@@>@87<.</td></tr> <tr><td align="right" valign="top"><nobr>-3</nobr></td> <td><img src="../../images/dot4x1.gif" height="1" width="4" border="0"></td> <td background="../../images/axbkg.gif" valign="top"><img src="../../images/level_y.gif" height="22" width="24" border="0"></td> <td valign="top" align="center"><b><u>@0G=0O MAB5B8:0</u></b></td></tr> <tr><td>&nbsp;</td> <td><img src="../../images/dot4x1.gif" height="1" width="4" border="0"></td> <td background="../../images/axbkg.gif">&nbsp;</td> <td align="left" valign="top">@8<8B8287<, =5?>=8<0=85 8 =52>A?@8OB85 ?@5:@0A=>3>, 2C;L30@=>ABL 2 ?>M788, <C7K:5 (hard rock, =87:>?@>1=0O MAB@040), 4@0<0BC@388 8 B.4. BAN40 A0487< 8 <07>E87<, ?A524>01AB@0:F8>=87<, 20=40;87<. K@0605BAO 2 70306820=88 8 15A?>@O4:5 2 68;8I5 (?>4J5740E, 42>@0E), <5AB5 @01>BK, 70<CA>@820=88 A@54K >18B0=8O. 0728B85 0=B8:C;LBC@K.</td></tr> <tr><td align="right" valign="top"><nobr>-1</nobr></td> <td><img src="../../images/dot4x1.gif" height="1" width="4" border="0"></td> <td background="../../images/axbkg.gif" valign="top"><img src="../../images/level_y.gif" height="22" width="24" border="0"></td> <td valign="top"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0"><tr> <td valign="top"><img src="../../images/levelb_y.gif" height="22" width="191" border="0"></td> <td><img src="../../images/dot4x1.gif" height="1" width="4" border="0"></td> <td valign="top"><i><b>&quot;?>;=K9 4518;&quot;</b>, 8;8 <b>&quot;H87>84&quot;</b> - A>2@0I5=85 4@C38E, @0728B85 =530B82=KE G5@B 4> 2A5 1>;55 =5?@85<;5<>3> C@>2=O.</i></td></tr></table></td></tr> </table></p> </center><blockquote> <dd>B0:, :064K9 <i>G5;>25:-8=48284</i> 2?>;=5 2 A>AB>O=88 =5 B>;L:> ?@028;L=> >F5=8BL A2>Q <b>/</b>, B.5. A2>9 =01>@ ?>4A>7=0=89 2 A>1AB25==>< A>7=0=88, 8AE>4O 87 2KH5?@82545==KE 8E ?5@5G=59 (?@>4C:B82=KE, ?>78B82=KE 8 45AB@C:B82=KE, =530B82=KE), 8 AB5?5=L 8E @0728B>AB8, =5 B>;L:> >A>7=0BL C@>25=L 30@<>=8G=>AB8 @0728B8O A2>53> A>7=0=8O 2 F5;>< (4>AB83=CBK9 8< 1;03>40@O 4>AB02H8<AO >B @>48B5;59 35=0<, 2>A?8B0=8N 8 >1@07>20=8N, 8;8 8<5NI8< <5AB> =530AD5@=K< >B:;>=5=8O<), => 8 8<55B @50;L=CN 2>7<>6=>ABL F5;5=0?@02;5==> 2;8OBL, ?>;>68B5;L=> 2>7459AB2>20BL =0 E>4 A2>53> @0728B8O =0 ?CB8 : 40;L=59H5<C A>25@H5=AB2>20=8N, ?@028;L=> >?@545;82 =0?@02;5=8O 8 <5B>4K, A?>A>1AB2CNI85 A=865=8N 53> 2>7<>6=>9 CI5@1=>AB8. >A?>;L7>20BLAO B0:>9 2>7<>6=>ABLN - MB> =5 ?@>AB> <i>?@02></i> :064>3> G5;>25:0, MB> 53> =0ACI=0O <b><i>>1O70==>ABL</i></b>. <dd>@8 MB><, >4=0:>, =5>1E>48<> ?><=8BL, GB> B> 8;8 8=>5 ?>4A>7=0=85 <>6=> 70?8A0BL 2 A2>9 0:B82, 5A;8 >=> =5 =865 6 AB5?5=8 @0728B>AB8, B.5. B>;L:> 2 B5E A;CG0OE, 5A;8 40==>5 ?>4A>7=0=85 AB0=>28BAO 4><8=0=B>9 ?>2545=8O 8=482840 8 ?>4:@5?;O5BAO 0:B82=>9 ?@0:B8G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>ABLN, >ACI5AB2;O5<>9 :0: @57C;LB0B 045:20B=>9 @50:F88 =0 A?5F8D8G5A:89 ?5@5G5=L A>>B25BAB2CNI8E @074@068B5;59-2>71C48B5;59. <dd><5==> OA=> 2K@065==K5 (=01;N405<K5) >A<KA;5==K5 459AB28O 2 :064>4=52=>< 1KB89=>< ?>2545=88 G5;>25:0 E0@0:B5@87CNB =0;8G85 8;8 >BACBAB285 C =53> B>3> 8;8 8=>3> ?>4A>7=0=8O 8 AB5?5=L 53> @0728B>AB8. @C38<8 A;>20<8, ;8HL ?>;=>F5==0O @5D;5:A8O <>65B A2845B5;LAB2>20BL > ?@8ACBAB288 C 40==>3> 8=482840 B>3> 8;8 8=>3> ?>4A>7=0=8O, 1C4L B> ?>78B82=>5 8;8 =530B82=>5. @8 53> >BACBAB288 C 8=482840 >1=0@C68205BAO A>>B25BAB2CNI0O 0@5D;5:A8O, 8;8, :0: 2K@060NBAO 2 1KBC, @02=>4CH85 B>3> 8;8 8=>3> @>40 (>= <>65B 1KBL @02=>4CH5=, =0?@8<5@, : @01>B5, ?>;8B8:5, A5<L5, 8 2 B> 65 2@5<O - : 0;:>3>;N, B010:C, =0@:>B8:0< 8 B.?.). <dd>=48284, >?@545;82H89 C A51O 2 0:B825 (2 A2>Q< <b>/</b>) B>;L:> ?>;>68B5;L=K5, ?@>4C:B82=K5 ?>4A>7=0=8O ;N1>9 AB5?5=8 @0728B>AB8 8 5A;8 MB> A>>B25BAB2C5B 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, <>65B AG8B0BLAO =>@<0;L=> >@85=B8@>20==K< G5;>25:><, 0 :C;LBC@0 53> ?>2545=8O, 53> <i>:C;LBC@=0O <0B@8F0</i> <>65B AG8B0BLAO ?@8<5@>< =>@<K. # B5E 65, C :>3> 2 A>7=0=88 1C45B >1=0@C65= 25AL =01>@ 87 16 ?>78B82=KE 8 4>AB0B>G=> @0728BKE ?>4A>7=0=89, <>65B 2>>1I5 ?@5B5=4>20BL =0 AB0BCA=>5 720=85 2A5AB>@>==5 @0728B>9 <i>A25BA:>9 ;8G=>AB8</i> A H8@>:8< :@C3>7>@>< 8 2KA>:>9 =@02AB25==>ABLN. '5< 2KH5 ?@>F5=B B0:>3> @>40 <i>;8G=>AB59</i> 2 A>AB025 40==>9 >1I=>AB8, B5< 1>;55 <i>A25BA:>9</i>, @0728B>9, A>2@5<5==>9, F828;87>20==>9 8 687=5A?>A>1=>9 >=0 O2;O5BAO. <dd>">B 65, :B> ?@8 A0<>>F5=:5 >1=0@C68B C A51O =0?@02;5==>ABL 2 @0728B88 A>7=0=8O 2 AB>@>=C >B@8F0B5;L=KE, 45AB@C:B82=KE =530?>4A>7=0=89 A 8E :><?;5:A0<8 1@54>2KE 8;8 ?>@>G=KE $& 8 -?0@078B0<8, 4>;65= :>=AB0B8@>20BL, GB> 53> A>7=0=85 8A:065=>, ?>78B82=> =5(4>)@0728B>, 8 >= =5 O2;O5BAO @07C<=K< ACI5AB2><, 0 A:>@55, 4>;65= ?>=OBL, GB> >= =5=>@<0;L=>5, <b><i><5=B0;L=> 1>;L=>5</i></b> A:>B>ACI5AB2>, AB0BCA=K9 <i>=5G5;>25:</i>, 8;8, 8A?>;L7CO B5@<8=>;>38N ;048<8@0 0;O, <b><i>=e;N4L</i></b>. A;8 65 ?@8 0=0;875 ?>;CG05BAO =8 B>, =8 AQ - B>340 MB> B8?8G=K9 <b><i>>1K20B5;L</i></b> A =54>@0728BK<8 8;8 A;01> 2K@065==K<8 M;5<5=B0<8 A>7=0=8O. <dd>AQ 2KH5?5@5G8A;5==>5 >B=>A8BAO 5AB5AB25==K< >1@07>< : <b><i>8=48284C0;L=><C A>7=0=8N</i></b> G5;>25:0. 4=0:> G5;>25:, O2;OOAL, ?> >?@545;5=8N @8AB>B5;O, &laquo;>1I5AB25==K< 682>B=K<&raquo;, ?@8720= 68BL 2 >1I5AB25 A0<8< E>4>< @0728B8O 0B5@88. C4CG8 8=48284><, >=, B5< =5 <5=55, 2AQ @02=> ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 =5:89 M;5<5=B >1I5AB20, :>B>@>5, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, O2;O5BAO A2>53> @>40 A8AB5<>9, 38?5@>@30=87<><, A>AB02;5==K< 87 =5:>53> :>;8G5AB20 2AO:>3> @>40 ;N459, 2K=C645==KE 68BL 2 40==>< A>F8C<5. @8 MB>< <K =5 4>;6=K 701K20BL 7=0<5=8B>5 87@5G5=85 .. 5=8=0: &laquo;5;L7O 68BL 2 >1I5AB25 8 1KBL A2>1>4=K< >B >1I5AB20&raquo;. <dd> MB>9 A2O78 =5B@C4=> ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> 1;03>?>;CG85 ;N1>9 B0:>9 >1I=>AB8 (>1I5AB20) ?@5645 2A53> 7028A8B >B AB5?5=8 5Q A0<>>@30=870F88 =0 2A5E C@>2=OE (8 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L 2;0AB=KE, >@30=87CNI8E AB@C:BC@), :>B>@0O >B@0605B AB5?5=L @0728B>AB8 8 A>25@H5=AB20 >A=>2=>9 <0AAK 8=48284CC<>2, 5Q A>AB02;ONI8E 8 >4=>2@5<5==> D>@<8@CNI8E 5Q &laquo;>1I5AB25==>5 /&raquo;, 4>;N ?>78B82=>3>, ?@>4C:B82=>3> A>7=0=8O 2 =Q<. <5==> >BAN40 @>48;0AL ?>3>2>@:0: &laquo;0:>2 =0@>4 - B0:0O 8 2;0ABL!&raquo; <dd>>B ?>G5<C AC<<0B82=>5 A>@30=87>20==>5 A>G5B0=85 8=48284CC<=KE A>7=0=89 O2;O5BAO B5<, GB> ?@8=OB> =07K20BL <b><i>>1I5AB25==K< A>7=0=85<</i></b> 40==>9 >1I=>AB8 ;N459, ?@>4CF8@CNI8< 8E 2708<>>B=>H5=8O, >1@07 8E 687=8 8 <0=5@K >1I5AB25==>3> ?>2545=8O. >MB><C >B25G0NI55 B@51>20=8O< A>2@5<5==>AB8, F828;87>20==>5 ?>2545=85 <>65B =01;N40BLAO ;8HL 2 B0:>< >1I5AB25, 345 ?@5>1;040NB ;N48 A ?>78B82=>9, =>>AD5@=>9 =0?@02;5==>ABLN A>7=0=8O, AB@5<OI85AO ?@81;878BL : A>25@H5==K<, 8450;L=K<, MB0;>==K< =>@<0< :0: A51O (D878G5A:8 8 =@02AB25==>), B0: 8 <0=5@K A2>53> ?>2545=8O. <dd>0?@02;5=85 @0728B>AB8 A>7=0=8O :064>3> 8=482840 7028A8B, :0: <K 3>2>@8;8, >B <=>38E D0:B>@>2, => ?@5645 2A53> >B 53> 35=5B8G5A:>9 =0A;54AB25==>AB8, 0 B0:65 >B B5E :>=:@5B=KE 7=0=89 8 =02K:>2, :>B>@K5 8< ?>;CG5=K 2 @57C;LB0B5 2>A?8B0=8O 8 >1@07>20=8O. A;8 2 A0<>< =0G0;5 ?@>F5AA0 @0728B8O 53> A>7=0=8O =5 1K; 40= 4>AB0B>G=> A8;L=K9 8<?C;LA @0728B8N ?@028;L=>9, =>>AD5@=>9 >@85=B0F88, D>@<8@>20=8N ?>78B82=KE $& 8 , 2 B>< G8A;5 8 B5E, GB> O2;ONBAO >A=>2>9 8=48284CC<=KE >1I5AB25==KE ?>4A>7=0=89, B> >B:@K20NBAO 2A5 2>7<>6=>AB8 4;O ?>O2;5=8O C 40==>3> 8=482840 ?>@>G=>9, =530AD5@=>9 >@85=B0F88 A>7=0=8O, 2:;NG0O 8 53> >1I5AB25==K5 A5:B>@K. > A<KA;C MB> =0?><8=05B @07=8FC <564C :C;LB828@C5<K<8 >2>I0<8 8 A>@=O:0<8, <564C ?@828BK<8 8 =5?@828BK<8 D@C:B>2K<8 45@52LO<8, <564C 4><0H=8<8 8 48:8<8 682>B=K<8, <564C 74>@>2K<8 8 1>;L=K<8 @0AB5=8O<8 8 682>B=K<8. <dd>>=OB85 <i>>1I5AB25==>5 A>7=0=85</i> 8<55B 420 ><>=8<8G5A:8E 7=0G5=8O. ! >4=>9 AB>@>=K, >=> >7=0G05B D>@<8@CNI85AO =0 >A=>25 A>>B25BAB2CNI8E 7=0=89, 2K7K20NI8E A>>B25BAB2CNICN @5D;5:A8N 8=482840, 2KA>:85 AD5@K, @0745;K, A5:B>@K (2A5 2KH5 2B>@>3>) <i>8=48284CC<=>3> A>7=0=8O</i> 8 2:;NG05B 2 A51O AB@>3> >?@545;Q==K9 8E A?8A>: (A<. H:0;C ?>4A>7=0=89), :C40 A;54C5B >B=5AB8 GQB:> 2K@065==K5 A;54CNI85 ?>4A>7=0=8O: A5<59=>5, @0A>2>-=0F8>=0;8AB8G5A:>5, 25@>20=8O 8 ?>G8B0=8O, ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>5, :>@?>@0B82=>5, ?0@B89=>5, =0F8>=0;L=>-3>AC40@AB25==>5, F828;870F8>==>5 8 A>N7=8G5A:>5. ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, <i>>1I5AB25==>5 A>7=0=85</i> >7=0G05B <u>AC<<0B82=CN @57C;LB8@CNICN</u> A>>B25BAB2CNI8E @0745;>2 8=48284CC<=KE A>7=0=89 40==>3> A>>1I5AB20 ;N459. <dd>"0:8< >1@07><, ?>A:>;L:C <i>>1I5AB25==>5 A>7=0=85</i> 1078@C5BAO =0 2KA>:8E AD5@0E <i>8=48284CC<=KE A>7=0=89</i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dd>!0<> ?> A515 2KA>:>5 >1I5AB25==>5 A>7=0=85 O2;O5B A>1>9 206=K9 0A?5:B >1I5AB25==>3> <5=B0;8B5B0, => 53> >4=>3> =54>AB0B>G=> 4;O ?>445@60=8O AB018;L=>AB8 2 >1I5AB25, ?>;=>BK CA;>289 =>@<0;L=>3> @0728B8O. => 2 >1O70B5;L=>< ?>@O4:5 4>;6=> A>?@>2>640BLAO AC<<0B82=K< <>I=K< >1I5AB25==K< 8=B5;;5:B>< 8 =>@<0;L=>-@5D;5:B82=>9 >1I5AB25==>9 ?A8E8:>9 (B.5. A?>A>1=>ABLN : >1I5AB25==><C 2>7<CI5=8N, => =5 8AB5@88, 8 B5@?8<>AB8, => =5 BC?>AB8, 70B>@<>65==>AB8, 0@5D;5:A88, >1I5AB25==><C 157@0748G8N), >?8@0NI59AO =0 4>AB0B>G=> @0728BK5 A83=0;L=K5 ?>4A8AB5<K 8=48284>2. ><8<> MB>3> >1I5AB2> 4>;6=> 8<5BL E>@>H> @0728BK9 >1I5AB25==K9 0;3><>4C;L, B.5. >1>1IQ==K5 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=K5 A?>A>1=>AB8, ?>2KH0NI85 53> ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=K5 2>7<>6=>AB8 8 <=>60I85 53> ?@>872>48B5;L=K5 A8;K. <dd>565;0B5;L=>9 0;LB5@=0B82>9 =5@0728B><C 8;8 8A:065==><C ?>78B82=><C >1I5AB25==><C A>7=0=8N <>65B 1KBL 45AB@C:B82=>5, 45AB018;878@CNI55 >1I5AB25==>5 A>7=0=85, O2;ONI55AO ?@>O2;5=85< 8=48284CC<=KE =530?>4A>7=0=89: @0A?CB=>3>, =0F8>=0;8AB8G5A:>9 >;83>D@5=88, :@8<8=>35=878@>20==>3>, D0=0BA:>3>, ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>-CB@0G5==>3>, :>@?>@0B82=>-=5@0728B>3>, 45845>;>3878@>20==>3>, 0=B8=0F8>=0;L=>3>, 0=B8F828;870F8>==>3> 8 0=B8A>N7=8G5A:>3>. #3;C1;5=8N 8A:065==>AB8, 45AB@C:B82870F88 >1I5AB25==>3> A>7=0=8O A?>A>1AB2C5B C25;8G5=85 4>;8 2 >1I5AB25 8=48284>2 A =0@CH5==K<8, =5@0728BK<8 8;8 8A:06Q==K<8 M;5<5=B0<8 <5=B0;8B5B0. <dd>>MB><C ?@87=0=85 >1I5AB2>< =0;8G8O 2 A2>Q< A>AB025 ?><8<> <i>;N459</i> 8 <i>>1K20B5;59</i> B0:65 B>3> 8;8 8=>3> ?@>F5=B0 <i>=5;N459</i>, 8E 2KO2;5=85 8 ?@>B82>459AB285 8<, :>=B@>;L 48=0<8:8 8E 4>;8 <>65B A2845B5;LAB2>20BL > 2KA>B5 >1I5AB25==>3> A>7=0=8O. KO2;5=85 =5;N459 4>;6=> >ACI5AB2;OBLAO A ?><>ILN A8AB5<0B8G5A:>3> B5AB8@>20=8O 8 =01;N45=89, 0 2 ?@>B82>459AB285 2:;NG0BL H8@>:89 ?5@5G5=L <5@ - >B ?>=865=8O 2 ?@020E 4> ?>;=>9 87>;OF88 (70 >E@0=O5<K< 701>@><) >B =>@<0;L=KE ;N459 8 >1K20B5;59. A;8 MB>3> =5 ?@>8AE>48B, 5A;8 G8A;> <i>=5;N459</i> ?@52KH05B G8A;> <i>G5;>25:>2</i> (<i>>1K20B5;8</i> =5 2 AGQB) 8 >=8 =0 A2>1>45, B> =>@<0;L=K5 ;N48 ?>:840NB B0:>5 >1I5AB2> (C5760NB, M<83@8@CNB, ;81> AB0=>2OBAO &laquo;70B2>@=8:0<8&raquo;, B.5. A0<8 >3>@06820NB A51O 3;CE8< 701>@><). <dd> >1I5AB25 A =>@<0;L=K< >1I5AB25==K< A>7=0=85< <i>=5;N48</i> 4>;6=K 1KBL ?>=865=K 2 ?@020E, ?@5645 2A53> >1I5AB25==KE, 4065 ?> A@02=5=8N A <i>>1K20B5;O<8</i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i>=5;N459</i>, :>B>@K5 D>@<8@CNB 1>;57=5==K5 ?> ACB8 ?@5ABC?=K5 3@C??8@>2:8, 10=4D>@<8@>20=8O, H09:8, <0D88, >;830@E8G5A:85 :;0=K, 8 B.4. <i>e;N48</i> A =0;8G85< 0:B82=> 2K@065==KE =530?>4A>7=0=89, CB@0B82H85 ?@54AB02;5=85 > <=>38E =>>AD5@=KE ?>=OB8OE 8;8 =5 ?>;CG82H85 53> 2>2A5, 8<5NB >B@8F0B5;L=K9 =@02AB25==K9 10;0=A 8 <>3CB 1KBL C65 =5 B>;L:> ?>;=K<8 4518;0<8 8 H87>840<8, 0 2>>1I5 :0:8<8-B> GC48I0<8 A ?5@A?5:B82>9 2 8B>35 AB0BL G5<-B> 2@>45 <i>>1>@>B=O</i>, <i><0=LO:0</i>, <i>8725@30</i>, <i><>=AB@0</i> 8 B.?. <dd>!0<K5 @0A?@>AB@0=Q==K5 ?@87=0:8 1>;57=5==>3> =0@CH5=8O A>7=0=8O - <i>1@54>2K5 </i>2KA:07K20=8O, 2:;NG0O, ?>;8B8G5A:85, A:;>==>ABL : :@8<8=0;C, EC4>65AB25==K5 872@0I5=8O 2 8A:CAAB25. <i>@54</i> A0< ?> A515 - MB> A8<?B>< ?A8E>A>7=0B5;L=>3> @0AAB@>9AB20 <5=B0;8B5B0, ?@>O2;ONI53>AO 2 ;>6=KE AC645=8OE, C<>70:;NG5=8OE 8, :0: A;54AB285, 2 ?>2545=G5A:8E 459AB28OE, 2 01AC@4=>< B2>@G5AB25. <dd>@54>2K5 CAB0=>2:8 2AB@5G0NBAO 2 ?>2A54=52=>9 687=8, : A>60;5=8N, AB>;L G0AB>, GB> 8E C65, ?> =57=0=8N, 8 =5 B@0:BCNB :0: 1>;57=5==K5. E ?@>8AE>645=85 O2;O5BAO @57C;LB0B>< =0@CH5=89 ?@5645 2A53> 2 8=D>@<0F8>==>< <5B01>;87<5, B.5. 2A;54AB285 =52>A?8B0==>AB8, <0;>>1@07>20==>AB8, =5?@>A25I5==>AB8, 254CI8E : =52565AB2C 8 15A:C;LBC@LN, => G0I5 : 1@54>2>9 1>;57=5==>AB8 8 4065 : ?@5ABC?;5=8O<. <dd>;O 40==>3> 2840 1>;L=KE 2848<K5 8<8 >1@07K 25AL<0 >B;8G0NBAO >B 459AB28B5;L=>AB8. >;55 B>3>, ?>4 2;8O=85< ;>6=>9 8;8 =5@07C<=>9 845>;>388, ?>;8B8G5A:8E A?5:C;OF89, ?0@B89=KE 8;8 @5;838>7=KE 4>3<, ?@5ABC?=>9 A@54K, 0 B0:65 GC2AB2 =5A?@0254;82>AB8, 28=K, @52=>AB8, 6064K 45=53, 2;0AB8 8;8 A;02K 8 4@C38E D8:A8@>20==KE M<>F8>=0;L=KE CAB0=>2>: 4;O =8E 2 8B>35 87<5=O5BAO 25AL F5;>AB=K9 >1@07 >:@C60NI59 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, 0 A =8< 8 F5;52K5 <>B820F88 ?>2545=8O. <dd> 07;8G=>5 2845=85 8 2>A?@8OB85 >:@C60NI53> <8@0 A>>B=>A8BAO : B><C 65 A @0<:0<8 @07=>@>4=KE A>F80;L=> (8;8 >1I5AB25==>, ?>;8B8G5A:8, 70:>=>40B5;L=>) ?@8=OBKE =>@<, =5 2A5340 A>2?040NI8E A =0CG=> (@07C<=>) >1>A=>20==K<8. >MB><C <5=B0;L=> 1>;L=K<8 A 1@54>2K<8 >B:;>=5=8O<8 A;54C5B AG8B0BL =5 B5E ;N459, :B> =5 A>1;N405B ?@8=OBKE, 2>7<>6=> >H81>G=KE, =>@<0B82=KE @0<>: (8 2>7@0605B ?@>B82, : ?@8<5@C, A;CG052 3>=5=89 A2OB>9 8=:2878F88 =0 CGQ=KE, O:>1K 5@5B8:>2, 2 A@54=85 25:0, ?>A04:8 2 ?A8E1>;L=8FK <=>38E 8=0:><KA;OI8E ?@8 A>25BA:>< @568<5, A>2@5<5==>9 03@5AA88 8A;0<A:8E M:AB@5<8AB>2 ?@>B82 &laquo;=525@=KE&raquo;, ?@5A;54>20=8O 70?04=K<8 70I8B=8:0<8 8450;>2 ?A524>45<>:@0B88 5Q :@8B8:>2, ?>445@6:8 >4=>?>;>9 ;N128), 0 B>;L:> B5E, A>7=0=85 :>B>@KE 2 7=0G8B5;L=>9 <5@5 8A:065=> 8 >B;8G=> >B MB0;>==KE, A25BA:8E =>@< <8@>?>=8<0=8O 8 A>>B25BAB2CNI8E 8< >1@070 687=8 8 <0=5@ ?>2545=8O. <dd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dd>>2>@O > !, =5>1E>48<> 8<5BL 2 284C, GB> :0: 1KB85 >?@545;O5B A>7=0=85, 0 A>7=0=85 - 1KB85, B0: 8 !, :0: 8=AB@C<5=B 8=D>AD5@K, >?@545;O5B A>7=0=85, 0 A>7=0=85 D>@<8@C5B A>45@60=85 !. <dd>>MB><C 4;O <i>;N459</i> A =>@<0;L=> @0728BK< A>7=0=85< 2K?CA:0NBAO =0CG=0O 8 :;0AA8G5A:0O ;8B5@0BC@0, 2KA>:>EC4>65AB25==K5 8 2KA>:>:C;LBC@=K5 6C@=0;K, B5;5?5@540G8 8 :8=>D8;L<K. <dd>;O <i>=5;N459</i> A =54>@0728BK< 8;8 8A:06Q==K< A>7=0=85< ?5G0B0NBAO &laquo;6Q;B0O ?@5AA0&raquo;, ?>@=>6C@=0;K, =0 ?>B@51C A>740NBAO ?@8<8B82=K5 B5;5?5@540G8, =0?>;=5==K5 C189AB20<8 8 :>H<0@0<8 :=838 8 D8;L<K, 2K1@0AK205BAO 2 8=D>@<0F8>==>5 ?@>AB@0=AB2> 2AO:>3> @>40 =530AD5@=K9 8=D>@<0F8>==K9 <CA>@ 8;8 2>>1I5 2@54>=>A=0O 4;O A>7=0=8O <i>G5;>25:0</i> 8=D>@<0F8O. ?>;=5 5AB5AB25==>, GB> 5Q A>740=85< 8 @0A?@>AB@0=5=85< 70=8<0NBAO B>;L:> <i>=5;N48</i>. >@<0;L=K5 <i>;N48</i> =5 <>3CB MB8< 70=8<0BLAO. < =5 ?>72>;8B MB>3> 45;0BL 8E =>@<0;L=> AD>@<8@>20==>5 <i>A>7=0=85</i>. <dd>5=B0;L=> 1>;L=K<8 O2;ONBAO B0:65 B5 8=48284K, :B> 157 ?@>B5AB0, 157 ?>?KB>: 87<5=8BL ?>;>65=85 2 =04;560ICN AB>@>=C (?> A5=5:>2A:8 - &laquo;:C40 4>;6=> 84B8&raquo;) 2>A?@8=8<05B 40;Q:85 >B A25BA:8E, @07C<=KE =>@< ?>@O4:8, ?@8=OBK5 40==K< A>>1I5AB2>< (8;8 @5:><5=4>20==K5, =02O70==K5 5<C, =0?@8<5@, :>@@C<?8@>20==>9 2;0ABLN, @5;838>7=K<8 845>;>30<8-4CE>2=8:0<8, 845>;>30<8 70?04=>9 <i>?A524>45<>:@0B88</i> A 5Q 42>9=K<8 AB0=40@B0<8), ?>A:>;L:C A2>59 2=CH05<>ABLN, 2A5< A2>8< ?>2545=85< 8;8 >1@07>< 687=8 >=8 2 B0:>< A;CG05 4>:07K20NB A2>Q A>AB>O=85 1@54>2KE 1>;L=KE :0: A B>G:8 7@5=8O A8;K 8 D8:A8@>20==>AB8 A2>8E GC2AB2 8 M<>F89, B0: 8 2 ?;0=5 8A:06Q==>3> 2845=8O 8<8 @50;L=>9 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, A>?@>B82;5=8O ;N1K< ?>?KB:0< :@8B8:8 8E 459AB289 8;8 ?@54;>65=8O< A:>@@5:B8@>20BL A2>Q ?>2545=85, >BABC?82 >B A2>8E 1@54>2KE CAB0=>2>: 2 ?@028;L=CN AB>@>=C. <dd>A;8 ?@8=OBK5 40==K< A>>1I5AB2>< =>@<K >:070;8AL A8;L=> >B:;>=Q==K<8 >B MB0;>==KE A25BA:8E A B>G:8 7@5=8O 8E >1I5AB25==>?>;57=>AB8 8;8 >A=>2 <8@>?>=8<0=8O, B> 8=48284, =5 871@02H89 4;O A51O BC 8;8 8=CN @07C<=CN D>@<C ?@>B5AB0 ?@>B82 =8E, =5 ?KB0NI89AO 87<5=8BL A8BC0F8N 2 =>@<0;L=CN AB>@>=C, 0 8A:@5==5 A;54CNI89 8<, D0:B8G5A:8 O2;O5BAO <5=B0;L=> 1>;L=K<, 45D5:B=K< 4> B5E ?>@, ?>:0 ;81> >= =5 ?5@594QB 8=48284C0;L=> =0 MB0;>==K5 A25BA:85 =>@<K ?>2545=8O, ;81> >1I5?@8=OBK5 2 40==>< A>>1I5AB25 =>@<K =5 1C4CB 87<5=5=K, ?@81;865=K : MB0;>==K< A25BA:8<. <dd> ?>:0 MB>3> =5 ?@>87>94QB, 682CI8E 2 B0:>3> @>40 A>>1I5AB25 (A>F80;L=>9 3@C??5) ;N459 1C4CB 8 40;LH5 2K=C640BL CA20820BL 5Q :><C-B> >G5=L 2K3>4=K5 >1I5AB25==K5 1@54>2K5 CAB0=>2:8, :0: ?@028;>, AB0=>2OI85AO 8459=>9 >A=>2>9 4;O 6064CI8E =0682K A ?><>ILN :>@@C?F88, 2>@>2AB20, <>H5==8G5AB20, 2K<>30B5;LAB20, 8;8 5IQ EC65 - :@8<8=0;0, B5@@>@87<0, M:AB@5<87<0, D0H87<0 8 B.?. =530B82=KE >1I5AB25==KE O2;5=89, 40;5:8E >B 2AO:>9 A25BA:>AB8. @8 MB>< A2O70==0O A =8<8 :>=F5=B@0F8O M<>F89 8 GC2AB2 1K205B =0AB>;L:> A8;L=>9 (27OBL, : ?@8<5@C, 10=48BA:89 187=5A, :@8<8=0;L=K5 @071>@:8, @5945@AB2>, D0H8ABA:89 =0F87<, 8A;0<A:89 M:AB@5<87< - 20EE0187<), GB> ?@8=OB>9 ?@>B82>5AB5AB25==>9, 40;Q:>9 >B A25BA:>9 A>F80;L=>->1I5AB25==>9 >@85=B0F88 G0AB> ?>A2OI05BAO 4065 A>1AB25==0O 687=L 8 A GC2AB2>< 2K?>;=5==>3> 4>;30 >4=8 8=48284K (=5;N48) >1:@04K20NB 8;8 4065 ;8H0NB 687=8 (C1820NB) 4@C38E ;N459, =5 278@0O =0 B>, :B> MB8 C18BK5 ;N48. <dd>@54>2K5 A>F80;L=K5 (845>;>38G5A:85, B5>;>38G5A:85, ?>;8B8G5A:85, <8@>2>77@5=G5A:85, :@8<8=0;L=>-10=48BA:85, <>H5==8G5A:>-:>@@C?F8>==K5) CAB0=>2:8 =525@=>3> <8@>?>=8<0=8O 8 ?>2545=8O =5@54:> >B;8G0NBAO 1>;LH>9 CAB>9G82>ABLN; <8=CNB ?>:>;5=8O, <5=ONBAO A>F80;L=K5 CA;>28O, 0 >=8 >AB0NBAO =587<5==K<8. <5AB5 A B5<, G5;>25:0, >1=0@C6820NI53> 2 1>;L=>< >1I5AB25 1@54>2K5 8458 (?@8=OBK5 2 :0G5AB25 =>@<K) 8 C:07K20NI53> =0 =8E 4065 A ?><>ILN 4>:070B5;LAB2 8 =0CG=>9 ;>38:8, <>3CB 83=>@8@>20BL 8;8, 5IQ EC65, A0<>3> 53> ?@87=0BL ?A8E8G5A:8 (<5=B0;L=>) 1>;L=K< 8;8 A>F80;L=> >?0A=K< (;8B5@0BC@=K5 ?@8<5@K - '0F:89, C48=, 35@>8 !>;65=8FK=0; =0CG=>-8AB>@8G5A:85 ?@8<5@K - !>:@0B, @8AB>B5;L, >?5@=8:, 6>@40=> @C=>, 0;8;5> 0;8;59, '0@;L7 0@28=; A>2@5<5==K5 ?@8<5@K - :@8B8:8 D0H87<0, :><<C=87<0, ;815@0;87<0, ?A524>45<>:@0B88 8 8A;0<A:>3> M:AB@5<87<0). <dd>-B> >1CA;>2;5=> G0I5 2A53> B5<, GB> C15645=8O B0:>3> G5;>25:0 G5@5AGC@ @57:> >B;8G0NBAO >B CAB0=>2>:, ?@8=OBKE 2KAH8<8 :@C30<8 >1I5AB20, B0: =07K205<>9 &laquo;M;8B>9&raquo;, D0:B8G5A:8 <i>?A524>M;8B>9</i>, 8 =02O7K205<KE 4@C38< 2 5Q 8=B5@5A0E.  B> 65 2@5<O 8<5==> MB>B G5;>25: 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 O2;O5BAO ?>4;8==> <i>M;8B=>9 ?5@A>=>9</i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dd><i>@54>2K5 :><?;5:AK</i> <>6=> :;0AA8D8F8@>20BL ?> >A=>20=8N 8E AB@C:BC@K (CAB>9G82K5, =5CAB>9G82K5, GC2AB25==K5) 8 B5<0B8:5 (A2O70==>9 A 845>;>3859, @5;838>7=K<8 ?@54?>GB5=8O<8, >B=>H5=85< : ;N4O<, A>1AB25==>9 @>;8 2 >1I5AB25, A5:AC0;L=>9 687=8 8 A>1AB25==><C B5;C). <dd> >A=>2=K< 8 =081>;55 <0AA>2K< 87 =8E >B=>AOBAO: <dd><i>0@0=>9O</i> (paranoia, >B 3@5G. para - @O4><, 2>7;5, 2>?@5:8, =0?5@5:>@, ;>6=>, 8 noos - C<, @07C<, A<KA;) - AB@>3> ?>=OB89=K5 1@54>2K5 :><?;5:AK, E0@0:B5@87CNI85AO 6QAB:>9 D8:A8@>20==>ABLN 8 C?>@O4>G5==>ABLN. @54>20O A8AB5<0 A>E@0=O5BAO 2 =587<5==>< 2845 3>40<8, 0 8=>340 25:0<8, >1KG=> 1K205B 45B0;L=> @07@01>B0==>9 8 >B;8G05BAO ;>38G5A:>9 B>G=>ABLN. >MB><C A;CG08 ?0@0=>98 @0A?>7=0NBAO A 1>;LH8< B@C4>< 8 B@51CNB 3;C1>:>3> =0CG=>-?A8E>D8;>A>DA:>3> 0=0;870. <dd> B0:>3> @>40 1@54>2K< :><?;5:A0< 2 =0H5 2@5<O >B=>AOBAO 872@0I5==K5 <0:@>845>;>388 - <i>D0H87<</i>, <i>=0F87<</i>, <i>3535<>=87<</i>, <i>:><<C=87<</i>, <i>;815@0;87<</i>, :@09=85 D>@<K <i>3;>10;87<0</i> 8 <i>0=B83;>10;87<0</i>, 8458 &laquo;<i>45<>:@0B88</i>&raquo;, 0 B0:65 <i>20EE0187<</i> 8 4@C385 25@A88 03@5AA82=KE :>=F5?F89 <i>B5>;>38G5A:>9 <8D>;>388</i>. A5 >=8 ?>-A2>5<C AK3@0;8 A2>N 8AB>@8G5A:CN, 1>;LH59 G0ABLN, ?03C1=CN @>;L 2 AB0=>2;5=88 G5;>25G5AB20, 0 =5:>B>@K5 5IQ 8 ?@>4>;60NB 83@0BL. 4=0:> =5A><=5==>, GB> 2284C 2>7@0AB0=8O 8E >B@8F0B5;L=>3> 2>7459AB28O =0 C<K ;N459 2A5 >=8 4>;6=K @0=> 8;8 ?>74=> ?5@59B8 =0 C@>25=L @5;8:B>2KE ?@>3@0<< <>B820F88 G5;>25G5A:>3> ?>2545=8O, ?>A:>;L:C AB0=>2OBAO 2AQ 1>;LH8< B>@<>7>< 2 ?@>3@5AA82=>< @0728B88 G5;>25G5A:>3> >1I5AB20, O2;OOAL ?@8G8=>9 <i>=52565AB20</i> 8 <i><@0:>15A8O</i>, <i>:>@@C?F88</i> 8 <i>:@8<8=0;0</i>, 0:B>2 <i>2>@>2AB20</i> 8 <i><>H5==8G5AB20</i>, <i>B5@@>@0</i> 8 <i>=0A8;8O</i>, 8 CABC?8BL <5AB> 845O< 8 =>@<0< <i>A25BA:>3> ?>2545=8O</i>. <dd><i>0@0D@5=8O</i> - 1@54>2K5 :><?;5:AK A 70:@5?;5==>9 8 C?>@O4>G5==>9, => 1>;55 GC2AB25==>9, =565;8 ?>=OB89=K5 AB@C:BC@>9 (1@54>2>-30;;NF8>=0B>@=K5 :><?;5:AK). "5<0B8:0 1K205B @07;8G=>9, => E0@0:B5@=K< O2;O5BAO =0;8G85 8;;N789 8 30;;NF8=0F89: ?>425@65==>ABL @07=>3> @>40 <038O<, 0AB@>;>388, C2;5G5=85 3><>A5:AC0;87<><, DCB1>;L=>-E>::59=K< D0=0B87<><, ?>?A>2>9 <C7K:>9, ;8B5@0BC@=K<8 DM=B578, <0=80:0;L=K< D8;>A>DAB2>20=85<, 2=CH5=8O<8 =5B@048F8>==KE A5:B, 8 B.?. <dd>5=55 @0A?@>AB@0=Q==K<8 1@54>2K<8 :><?;5:A0<8 O2;ONBAO: <dd><i>'C2AB2> C3@>7K</i> - ;>6=K9 AB@0E ?5@54 >:@C65=85<, =5 >1>A=>20==K9 >1J5:B82=>9 A8BC0F859, 0 2KB5:0NI89 ;8HL 87 2=CB@5==59 CAB0=>2:8 8=482840.  A>F80;L=>9 687=8 ?@8<5@K MB>3> <>6=> 2AB@5B8BL C 87>;8@>20==KE 3@C??, ?@54AB02;ONI8E A>F80;L=K5 8;8 =0F8>=0;L=K5 <5=LH8=AB20. ';5=K B0:8E 3@C??, E>BO 8< =5 C3@>605B =8:0:0O @50;L=0O >?0A=>ABL, C15645=K 2 5Q ACI5AB2>20=88. > =5 <5=55 1>;57=5==K< A>AB>O=85< A;54C5B AG8B0BL 157@0AAC4=>5 83=>@8@>20=85 C3@>7K, ?@5=51@565=85 @50;L=>9 >?0A=>ABLN. <dd><i>'C2AB2> =5A?@0254;82>AB8 </i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laquo;persecutor persecute&raquo; (&laquo;?@5A;54C5<K9 ?@5A;54>20B5;L&raquo;). -B8< =54C3>< 2 ?>A;54=55 2@5<O C<5;> ?>;L7CNBAO >?@545;Q==K5 A8;K ?@8 >@30=870F88 B.=. &laquo;>@0=652KE @52>;NF89&raquo;. <dd>4=0:> =5 <5=55 1>;57=5==K<8 O2;ONBAO 8 ?@>B82>?>;>6=K5 B5=45=F88 2 ?>2545=88 8=48284>2: A>F80;L=0O 8 ?>;8B8G5A:0O >B@5HQ==>ABL, A>F80;L=0O 0?0B8O, G0AB> AB0=>2OI85AO ?@8G8=>9 0;:>3>;87<0 8 =0@:><0=88. <dd> ?>A;54=55 2@5<O 2 A2O78 A CA:>@5=85< A>F80;L=>9 M2>;NF88 2AQ G0I5 A;CG0NBAO A8BC0F88, :>340 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=0O A?>A>1=>ABL <>730 8=482840 >:07K205BAO =865 ?>@>30 >A2>5=8O ?>AB>O==> @0ABCI53> :>;8G5AB20 ?>ABC?0NI59 8=D>@<0F88. ">340 C G5;>25:0, =5 =0CG5==>3> 2 =59 @0718@0BLAO 8 C<5;> >BA>@B8@>2K20BL, >B18@0BL ?>;57=CN 8=D>@<0F88 >B <CA>@=>9, 10;;0AB=>9, ?>O2;O5BAO >ICI5=85 E0>A0. ;O B0:>3> G5;>25:0 AB0=>28BAO =52>7<>6=K< >@85=B8@>20BLAO 2 F5;>AB=>9 A8BC0F88 >:@C60NI59 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, >=0 AB0=>28BAO =5?>=OB=>9, <CG8B5;L=>9, 15A?>:>OI59. !B02H59 E0>B8G5A:>9 459AB28B5;L=>ABL 2K7K205B @074@065=85 ;81> CB><;5=85 8 2<5AB> B>3>, GB>1K ?@8BO3820BL, >BB0;:8205B, ?C305B. <dd><5==> 2 MB8E F5;OE G5;>25: 4>;65= 2AN A2>N 687=L @072820BL 8 ?>445@6820BL <0:A8<0;L=> 2KA>:89 C@>25=L A2>8E 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=KE A?>A>1=>AB59, 8<5==> 4;O MB>3> A @0==53> 2>7@0AB0 2 ?5@8>4 53> 2>A?8B0=8O 8 >1@07>20=8O A>F80;L=K< >:@C65=85< A>>1I05BAO 5<C 3>B>20O A8AB5<0 =>>AD5@=KE ?>=OB89, >F5=>:, H:0;K F5==>AB59-?>@>:>2 8 B.?. - '!"+ #  A B5<, GB>1K >1;53G8BL 5<C >@85=B0F8N 2 >:@C60NI5< <8@5 8 A?5F8D8G5A:8< >1@07>< C?>@O4>G8BL E0>A ?>ABC?0NI8E : =5<C @53C;O@=> 87 8=D>AD5@K 8=D>@<0F8>==KE A83=0;>2. <dd><i>@54>2>5 @0728B85 ;8G=>AB8 </i>- ?A8E8G5A:0O A:;>==>ABL : 1@54>2K< CAB0=>2:0< 8 @50:F8O< ?> <0;>7=0G8<K< ?>2>40< (:0:0O-B> =5C40G0, =0@CH5=85 :>=B0:B0 A >:@C60NI8<8, ?;>E>5 =0AB@>5=85 8 B.?.), 2K@060NI0OAO 2 30;;NF8=8@>20=88 2>:@C3 A51O 2@03>2. 5>?@545;Q==K5 (8;8 :06CI85AO) 2@038 ?@52@0I0NBAO 2 >?@545;Q==CN :;8:C, ?>A;54>20B5;L=> 4>1820NICNAO A2>59 &laquo;F5;8&raquo; - C=8GB>65=8O 40==>3> ;8F0. "5=45=F8O : B0:>3> @>40 8=B5@?@5B0F88 >:@C60NI53> <8@0 A 2>7@0AB>< CA8;8205BAO. >340 ?@5E>4OI85 1@54>2K5 CAB0=>2:8 70:@5?;ONBAO 8 A8AB5<0B878@CNBAO, <>6=> 3>2>@8BL > ?0@0=>84=>< @0728B88 ;8G=>AB8. <dd>@54 ACBO6=8G5AB20 </i>- 4;O 1>;L=KE-:25@C;O=B>2 >:@C60NI89 A>F80;L=K9 <8@ ?@54AB02;O5BAO 2@06451=K<, => =5 =0AB>;L:> ?C30NI8<, GB>1K 1>;L=K5 1K;8 =5 2 A>AB>O=88 =0G0BL 1>@L1C 70 A?@0254;82>ABL, :>B>@0O AB0=>28BAO 4;O =8E A25@EF5==>9 84559. 9 >=8 3>B>2K ?>A2OB8BL 2AQ A2>Q 2@5<O, 74>@>2L5 8 45=L38. E 45287 - &laquo;Pereat mundus et fiat justitia&raquo; (CABL ?>381=5B <8@, => A25@H8BAO ?@02>AC485 - ;0B.). "0:85 1>;L=K5 - :>H<0@ 4;O >@30=>2 ?@02>AC48O, 0 B0:65 A>F80;L=KE AB@C:BC@ 8 @540:F89. <dd><i>@54 25;8G8O 8 <5AA80=AB20 </i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dd>%0@0:B5@ ?@54=07=0G5=8O <>65B 1KBL @5;838>7=K< - &laquo;<i><5AA8O</i>&raquo; (2 MB8E A;CG0OE G0AB> >1@07C5BAO :0:0O-;81> A5:B0), ?>;8B8G5A:8< - &laquo;<i>?>;8B8G5A:89 ;845@</i>&raquo; (>1@07C5BAO :0:0O-;81> =>20O ?0@B8O), =0CG=K< - &laquo;<i>25;8:89 CG5=K9</i>&raquo; (8< ?8H5BAO :0:0O-;81> 01AC@4=0O =0CG=0O AB0BLO, :=830), EC4>65AB25==K< - <i>2K40NI89AO...</i>&raquo; (?8H5BAO ;8B5@0BC@=K9 >?CA, ;8H5==K5 74@02>3> A<KA;0 :0@B8=0, =5B@048F8>==>5 <C7K:0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85, AB028BAO A ?@5B5=78O<8 =0 GB>-B> D8;L<) 8 B.?. G5=L G0AB> ?>4>1=K5 A;CG08 =>AOB 1>;LH5 A?5:C;OB82=K9 E0@0:B5@ 8 70 2A5< MB8< A:@K20NBAO 1>;L=K5 4@C3>3> @>40 - >1K:=>25==K5 <>H5==8:8. <dd>=>340 2AQ 65 45:;0@8@>20==>9 F5;LN 687=8 B0:>3> 1>;L=>3> AB0=>28BAO 87<5=8BL <8@ : ;CGH5<C, >AG0AB;828BL G5;>25G5AB2>. >, :0: ?@028;>, 53> >B=>H5=85 : ;N4O< 87<5=O5BAO =0 ?@57@8B5;L=>5 ;81> 2@06451=>5. >;L=>9 C1564Q=, GB> 53> =5 ?>=8<0NB 8 <5H0NB 5<C 2 @50;870F88 25;8:>9 <8AA88. 1AC@4=>ABL 8 2KB5:0NI89 87 =5Q B@038:><87< - :0: <8AA88, B0: 8 @>;8 1>;L=>3> (?@5A;>2CBK9 &laquo;0?>;5>=&raquo;) - G0I5 2A53> C:07K20NB =0 >@30=8G5A:CN, @565 - =0 H87>D@5=8G5A:CN 453@040F8N 40==>3> 8=482840. <dd><i>@54 87>1@5B0B5;LAB20 </i>8;8, A:>@55, <i>1@54 B2>@G5AB20 </i>2>>1I5 - A2>9AB25=5= 4;O 1>;L=KE, AG8B0NI8E, GB> 8E ?@54=07=0G5=85, <8AA8O A>AB>8B 2 A>740=88 25;8:>3> B2>@5=8O, :>B>@>5 53> ?@>A;028B, 0 ;N459 >AG0AB;828B. -B8 B2>@5=8O <>3CB 1KBL M?>E0;L=K<8, =04 :>B>@K<8 B@C48;8AL =5 >4=> ?>:>;5=85 &laquo;87>1@5B0B5;59&raquo; (perpetuum mobile - 25G=K9 42830B5;L, 0;E8<8O), 0 B0:65 1>;55 ?@>708G=K<8: :0:>5-=81C4L C=825@A0;L=>5 ;5:0@AB2>, A@54AB2> ><>;>65=8O, 8450;L=0O ?>;8B8G5A:0O A8AB5<0, @07@5H0NI0O 2A5 :>=D;8:BK 8 ?@>1;5<K, 8;8 ?@>872545=85 8A:CAAB20, :>B>@>5 1C45B :28=BMAA5=F859 :@0A>BK, 8 B.4. 0F85=B @01>B05B 157 >B4KE0 ?> <=>3> G0A>2 2 45=L, 701@0AK20O 4>< 8 A5<LN, =5 8=B5@5AC5BAO A2>8<8 68B59A:8<8 45;0<8. <dd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dd><i>0B0AB@>D8G5A:89 1@54 </i>- :@09=55 2K@065=85 =>@<0;L=>9 4;O G5;>25:0 >AB>@>6=>AB8, @07C<=KE 8 2725H5==KE >?0A5=89. ;O 1>;L=>3> >:@C60NI89 <8@ ?>425@305BAO C=8GB>65=8N. @54>2K5 8458 ?>4>1=>3> B8?0 2KB5:0NB ?@5645 2A53> 87 45?@5AA82=>3> 2845=8O 8< 1C4CI53> 2 G5@=KE :@0A:0E, >= AG8B05B A51O 0?>AB>;>< :0B0AB@>DK, 0 A2>N <8AA8N - ?@54>AB5@5GL A2>Q >:@C65=85, &laquo;>B:@KBL 8< 3;070&raquo;.  7028A8<>AB8 >B B>3>, :0: 40;5:> ?@>AB8@05BAO <8@ 1>;L=>3> (4><, A5<LO, ?@>872>4AB25==K9 :>;;5:B82, AB@0=0, 75<=>9 H0@, F5;K9 >A<>A), =0AB>;L:> @07428305BAO >?0A=>ABL 53> 1@54>2>3> ?@54AB02;5=8O: AB@0=0 =0 3@0=8 :0B0AB@>DK, 1;878BAO :>=5F A25B0 - <i>0?>:0;8?A8A</i>, 8 B.?. @8 H87>D@5=88 C15645=85 2 =042830NI59AO :0B0AB@>D5 >E20BK205B 1>;55 H8@>:89 :@C3 <8@0, 2 4@C38E A;CG0OE 45?@5AA88 - 1>;55 C7:89 (4><, A5<LO, /).  ?>4>1=>3> @>40 1@54>2KE 845OE G0AB> ?@8ACBAB2C5B A:@KB0O B5=45=F8O : A0<>C=8GB>65=8N: 548=AB25==K< A?0A5=85< 4;O A51O 8 A2>8E 1;87:8E 1>;L=>9 2848B A<5@BL. > MB>9 ?@8G8=5 >= 8=>340 C18205B B5E, :>3> 1>;LH5 2A5E ;N18B, 2:;NG0O A51O. <dd>@>B82>?>;>6=>9 1>;57=5==>ABLN 2 MB8E A;CG0OE <>6=> AG8B0BL 83=>@8@>20=85 3@>7OI8E 3;>10;L=KE >?0A=>AB59, B0:8E :0:: =02O7K20=85 G5;>25G5AB2C A><=8B5;L=KE A?0A8B5;L=KE 845>;>38G5A:8E 4>3<-<i>?0=0F59</i>, 3;02=K< >1@07>< B5>;>38G5A:>3> E0@0:B5@0; 4>?CI5=85 2>7<>6=>AB8 2>9= A ?@8<5=5=85< >@C68O <0AA>2>3> C=8GB>65=8O; C3@>70 3;>10;L=>3> ?>B5?;5=8O-?>E>;>40=8O, @07=>3> @>40 M:>;>38G5A:8E :0B0AB@>D; 3535<>=87< >4=>9 =0F88 8;8 C7:>3> A>N70 =0F89. <dd><i>@54 &laquo;2C=45@:8=40&raquo; </i>- 3@>B5A:>20O D>@<0 =>@<0;L=>3> <0B5@8=A:>3> GC2AB20 3>@4>AB8 8 <5GBK > AG0AB;82>< 8 1;5ABOI5< 1C4CI5< A2>53> @515=:0, A:><?;5:A>20==0O 2 1@54 53> 25;8G8O. @8B8G5A:>5 >B=>H5=85 >:@C60NI8E G0AB> 2K7K205B @50:F8N 2 D>@<5 1@540 ?@5A;54>20=8O. @>B82>?>;>6=>ABLN 1@540 &quot;2C=45@:8=40&quot; O2;ONBAO 1@54>2K5 1>;57=8 15740@=>AB8, 4C@=>3> E0@0:B5@0, 1>;57=5==>AB8, BC?>AB8 A>1AB25==>3> @515=:0, :>@@5;8@CNI85 A 1@54>< =8GB>6=>AB8. >=OB=>, A:>;L >B@8F0B5;L=> >B@060NBAO =0 @51Q=:5 :0: ?>78B82=K5, B0: 8 =530B82=K5 1@54>2K5 CAB0=>2:8. <dd> >4=><C 87 284>2 1>;57=5==KE 1@54>2KE CAB0=>2>: <>6=> A<5;> >B=5AB8 G0AB> 2AB@5G0NI89AO 2 ?>A;54=55 2@5<O <i>>;830@E8G5A:89 1@54 =0682K</i>, :>340 ;8HQ==KE 74@02><KA;8O 1>;L=KE ?@5A;54C5B <0=80:0;L=0O BO30 : 157C45@6=><C =0:>?8B5;LAB2C (<i>money</i><0=8O) 8 @>ABC A2>53> 1;03>A>AB>O=8O 4> 157<5@=KE @07<5@>2, =0<=>3> ?@52KH0NI8E @07C<=CN ?>B@51=>ABL 8E A5<L8 =0 =5A:>;L:> 1C4CI8E ?>:>;5=89. >;L=K5 MB>3> B8?0 (<i>45=56=K5 <0=LO:8</i>) 2 157C<=>< AB@5<;5=88 8AB@0B8BL =0:>?;5==K5 45=L38 ?@8>1@5B0NB A =574>@>2>9 @0AB>G8B5;L=>ABLN A25@EH8:0@=K5 OEBK, 42>@FK, 02B><>18;8 8 ?@>G85 ?@54<5BK 1>;57=5==>9 @>A:>H8, :0:85 B>;L:> <>3CB ?@89B8 2 8E 1@54>2>5 2>>1@065=85, =0?>;=ONB 10AA59=K H0<?0=A:8<, AB0=>2OBAO 2;045;LF0<8 70@C156=KE DCB1>;L=KE :;C1>2, CAB@0820NB C25A5;8B5;L=K5 <5@>?@8OB8O 8 B>@65AB20 A><=8B5;L=KE AF5=0@852 ?> ;N1><C ?>2>4C, @0AE>4CO =0 =8E 10A=>A;>2=K5 A@54AB20, 8 B.4. </p> <p> <dd>725AB=> 25;8:>5 <=>65AB2> 1@54>2KE :><?;5:A>2, :>B>@K5 =5 B@51CNB @0AH8D@>2:8. 5@5G8A;8<, =0?@8<5@, =5:>B>@K5 87 =8E: 1@54 ?@5A;54>20=8O, 1@54 3@5E>2=>AB8, 1@54 =8GB>6=>AB8, 1@54 ;N128, 1@54 15@5<5==>AB8, 1@54 @52=>AB8, 45?5@A>=0;870F8O 8 45@50;870F8O, 8?>E>=4@8G5A:89 1@54 8 <=>385, <=>385 4@C385. <dd>!>25@H5==> 1@54>2K<8 2K3;O4OB 8==>20F88 2 A>2@5<5==>< 8A:CAAB25 2 M:A?>78F8OE @07;8G=KE &laquo;<i>8=AB0;;OF89</i>&raquo; 8 <i>185=0;5</i>.  C6 > 1@54>2>< A>7=0=88 CAB@>8B5;59 8 CG0AB=8:>2 <i>359-?0@04>2</i> <>6=> 4065 8 =5 3>2>@8BL - 4;O ;N1>3> =>@<0;L=>3> G5;>25:0 MB> >G5284=K9 D0:B. <dd> 1@54>2K< :><?;5:A0< >B=>AOBAO B0: =07K205<K5 <i>D>188</i> 8 <i><0=88</i> - =02O7G82K5 A>AB>O=8O =5045:20B=>3> ?5@56820=8O AB@0E>2 :>=:@5B=>3> A>45@60=8O. >425@65==K5 8< 8=48284K G0AB> >A>7=0NB =5>1>A=>20==>ABL AB@0E>2 8 4065 >B=>AOBAO : =8< :0: : 1>;57=5==K< 8 AC1J5:B82=> <CG8B5;L=K< ?5@56820=8O<, => 2A5 @02=> >=8 =5 2 A8;0E 8E :>=B@>;8@>20BL. <dd> B5E A;CG0OE, :>340 8=48284 =5 >1=0@C68205B >BG5B;82>3> :@8B8G5A:>3> ?>=8<0=8O 15A?>G25==>AB8, =5@07C<=>AB8 AB@0E>2, B> B>340 MB> <>3CB 1KBL =5 D>188 8;8 <0=88, 0 ?0B>;>38G5A:85 A><=5=8O (>?0A5=8O) 8;8 ?@>AB> >1KG=K9 <i>1@54</i>. <i>$>188</i> >B;8G0NBAO ?@5645 2A53> B5<, GB> 8<5NB >?@545;5==K5 ?>2545=G5A:85 ?@>O2;5=8O - =02O7G82K5, @8BC0;87>20==K5 459AB28O, F5;L :>B>@KE - 871530=85 ?@54<5B0 D>188 8;8 C<5=LH5=85 AB@0E0. <dd> =081>;55 G0AB> 2AB@5G0NI8<AO <i>D>18O<</i> >B=>AOBAO =>7>D>188 (AB@0E 701>;520=8O), 2:;NG0O :0=F5@>D>188, :0@48>D>188 8 B.4., A>F8>D>188 (AB@0E ?C1;8G=KE 2KABC?;5=89, AB@0E ?>:@0A=5BL 8 ?@.), :;0CAB@>D>18O (1>O7=L 70:@KB>3> ?@>AB@0=AB20, 70:@KBKE ?><5I5=89) 8 03>@0D>18O (AB@0E >B:@KB>3> ?@>AB@0=AB20), 0=B@>?>D>18O, 384@>D>18O, <8:@>1>D>18O, 38?A>D>18O, 1>O7=L G8A5; 666, 13, GQ@=KE :>H5:, ?CABKE 2Q45@ 8 4@C385. !N40 65 >B=>AOBAO 8 B0:85 :0: :A5=>D>18O, A;02O=>D>18O, @CA>D>18O 8 B.?. <dd> <i><0=8O<</i> >B=>AOBAO =02O7G82K5 ?A8E8G5A:85 @0AAB@>9AB20, ?5@5E>4OI85, :0: ?@028;>, 2 H8@>:> @0A?@>AB@0=Q==K5 2@54=K5 ?@82KG:8 8 ?>@>:8, B0:85 :0: C2;5G5=85 070@B=K<8 83@0<8, B010:>:C@5=85 - B010:><0=8O, 0;:>3>;87< - 0;:><0=8O, ?@82O70==>ABL : =0@:>B8:0< - =0@:><0=8O, B>:A8:><0=8O, <0=8O ?@5A;54>20=8O, <0=8O =0682K, >1>30I5=8O - <i>money</i><0=8O, <0=8O 2>@>2AB20 - :;5?B><0=8O, <0=8O 2K<>30B5;LAB20 - 27OB:><0=8O, <0=8O <>H5==8G5AB20, <0=8O 25;8G8O, <0=80:0;L=>5 AB@5<;5=85 : 2;0AB8 - 2;0AB>;N185 (2;0AB><0=8O), M@>B><0=8O, 3@0D><0=8O, 8 <=>385 4@C385. </p> <p> <dd>"0:>2> 2:@0BF5 >?8A0=85 8725AB=KE : =0AB>OI5<C 2@5<5=8 >A=>2=KE 45D5:B>2 <i>?A8E8:8 </i>8 <i>A>7=0=8O</i>, :>B>@K5 =530B82=> A:07K20NBAO =0 ?>2545=88 8=48284>2, 2 1>;LH8=AB25 ?0B>;>38G5A:8E A;CG052 ?@52@0I0O 8E 2 <i>=5;N459</i> 8 45;0O 1>;55 A;>6=>9 687=L =0E>4OI8EAO @O4>< A =8<8 <i>;N459</i>. <dd>'B>1K >1;53G8BL A2>N CG0ABL, ;N48, 2K=C645==K5 ?@>6820BL 2 >4=>< A>F8C<5 A =5;N4L<8, ?>AB>O==> 8ICB A?>A>1K <u>>3@048BLAO </u>>B =8E, >B 8E 2;8O=8O, >B 8E ?>AO30B5;LAB2, >B >1I5=8O A =8<8. >MB><C 8AB>@8G5A:8 ?5@2K< H03>< >B45;5=8O <i>G5;>25:>2</i> (AB0BCA=KE ;N459) >B AB0BCA=KE <i>=5;N459</i> AB0;> CAB@>9AB2> 70?>@>2, 2>72545=85 701>@>2, 873>@>459 8 4065 :@5?>AB=KE AB5= 2 @0<:0E 0@50;0 8E A>2<5AB=>3> ?@>6820=8O. !0<K< 1>;LH8< 701>@><, ?@8720==K< 2 A2>Q 2@5<O 70I8I0BL :8B09F52 >B =0153>2 20@20@>2 A A525@0, A;54C5B AG8B0BL <i>5;8:CN :8B09A:CN AB5=C</i>. <dd>!> 2@5<5=5<, GB>1K :>=B@>;8@>20BL ?>ABC?:8 <i>=5;N459</i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dd>IQ >=DCF89 CB25@640;, GB> 4;O G5;>25:0 ACI5AB2CNB ?>=OB8O &laquo;E>@>H>&raquo; 8 &laquo;?;>E>&raquo;, 0 4;O 682>B=>3> - =5B. '0@;L7 0@28=, :0: 1K ?@>4>;60O MBC <KA;L, ?8A0;: &laquo;/ 2?>;=5 A>3;0A5= A <=5=85< B5E ?8A0B5;59, :>B>@K5 CB25@640NB, GB> 87 2A5E @07;8G89 <564C G5;>25:>< 8 682>B=K<8 A0<>5 206=>5 5ABL =@02AB25==>5 GC2AB2>, 8;8 A>25ABL. K 2848< 2 =Q< 1;03>@>4=59H55 87 2A5E A2>9AB2 G5;>25:0&raquo;. <dd>?>;=5 5AB5AB25==>, GB> ;N48 =0 ?@0:B8:5 @54:> A0<>:@8B8G=>, ?> A>25AB8, ?@87=0NB C A51O =530B82=>5 @0728B85 <i>A>7=0=8O</i>, G0I5 >=8 4065 =5 >A>7=0NB 53> =530B82=>ABL. -B>-B> 8 O2;O5BAO >4=>9 87 3;02=KE ?@8G8= H87>D@5=8G5A:>3> @0A:>;0 8E <b>/</b>, :>340, 8<5O >B@8F0B5;L=K9 =01>@ ?>4A>7=0=89, ;N48 4C<0NB > A515 :0: > ?>;>68B5;L=>9 ;8G=>AB8, A>74020O B0:8< >1@07>< 4;O A51O 8 4;O 4@C38E =5@50;8AB8G=>5, ?5@52Q@=CB>5 ?@54AB02;5=85 >1 >:@C60NI5< 8E <8@5. <dd><5AB5 A B5<, 2 >1I5AB25 402=> ACI5AB2CNB @07;8G=K5 ?>?C;OF88 AB0BCA=KE <i>=e;N459</i>, ?0@078B8@CNI8E =0 2AQ< 74>@>2><, ?>;L7K >B :>B>@KE =5B, 8 8E :>;8G5AB2> A ?><>ILN ;815@0;>2 8 ?@02>70I8B=8:>2 15A:>=B@>;L=> C25;8G8205BAO.  <i>=5;N4O<</i> <>6=> ?@8G8A;8BL 8 <i>8=48284>2</i> 4065 A =51>;LH8<8 H87>D@5=8G5A:8<8 >B:;>=5=8O<8, 5A;8 8E =5=>@<0;L=>5 ?>2545=85 =5 845=B8D8F8@C5BAO 8 =5 :>=B@>;8@C5BAO =>@<0;L=K<8 ;N4L<8. !>2@5<5==K9 B8? ?@>428=CBKE <i>=5;N459</i> - MB> <i>AC?5@0=8<0;K</i> (superanimals - A25@E682>B=K5) 8 ?A524>;N48 - <i>AC335AB>@K</i> (suggest - 2=CH0BL), <0=8?C;OB>@K-?@8A?>A>1;5=FK. %8I=8G5A:0O CAB0=>2:0 2:;NG05B C =8E G0I5 2A53> 425 7>>?A8E>;>38G5A:85 G5@BK: 7;>1=>ABL 8 :>20@AB2>. <5==> B0:85 ?A524>G5;>25:8-<i>>1>@>B=8</i> >@30=87CNB 8 >ACI5AB2;ONB 70:07=K5 C189AB20 8 27OB85 70;>6=8:>2, 2>@CNB 1N465B=K5 45=L38 8 2K<>30NB 27OB:8, CAB@0820NB 27@K2K 8 ?>46>38 8 4@C385 0:BK B5@@>@0 8 :@8<8=0;0. <dd>1I=>ABL, 2 :>B>@>9 ?@5>1;0405B G8A;> <i>=e;N459</i>, =5 >B45;5==KE >B ;N459 701>@><, B.5. ?@51K20NI59 A 2=5H=59 AB>@>=K 701>@0, =5 <>65B 4>;3> ACI5AB2>20BL (:0: =5 <>3CB 68BL A0<8 ?> A515 >4=8 385=K), 81> <5=O5BAO C65 A0<0 =>@<0 >1I5AB25==>3> <i>?>2545=8O</i>. "0:0O >1I=>ABL A <><5=B0 4>AB865=8O =5:>53> :@8B8G5A:>3> G8A;0 =e;N459 D0:B8G5A:8 >1@5G5=0, 2 =59 =5B 30@<>=8G=>3> @0728B8O, ?@>3@5AA0.  MB>< A;CG05 =e;N48 ;81> A0<8 87=8GB>60NB 4@C3 4@C30, ;81>, 2 :>=F5 :>=F>2, 8E 87>;8@CNB 2A5-B0:8 2=CB@8 =0456=>9 >E@0=O5<>9 >3@04K 74>@>2K5 A8;K 872=5 40==>3> A>>1I5AB20. <dd>"0:8< >1@07><, ?>:070B5;5< 687=5A?>A>1=>AB8 B>9 8;8 8=>9 >1I=>AB8 O2;O5BAO, :B> =0E>48BAO 2=CB@8 CA;>2=>9 >1I5AB25==>9 >3@04K - <i>;N48</i> 8;8 <i>=5;N48</i>. A;8 A=0@C68 ?>@O4>: ?>445@68205BAO ;N4L<8, 0 =5;N48 87>;8@>20=K 2=CB@8 >3@04K - >1I5AB2> 687=5A?>A>1=>. A;8 65 70 ?@545;0<8 >3@04K 15AG8=AB2CNB =5;N48, 0 ;N48 E>@>=OBAO >B =5;N459 2=CB@8 5Q, 8;8 8E BC40 C?5:0NB =5;N48 - >1I5AB2> =5687=5A?>A>1=>, >=> >1@5G5=> 8 @0=> 8;8 ?>74=> @0A?04QBAO, 8AG57=5B. <dd>>@<0;L=K9 AB0BCA=K9 <i>G5;>25:</i> =5 <>65B ACI5AB2>20BL 2 >48=>G:C 2 >1I=>AB8 =e;N459 ?> @O4C ?@8G8=. @5645 2A53> >= =5 =0E>48B 2 =Q< >1J5:B>2 4;O >1I5=8O, ?>A:>;L:C >1I5AB2> ?@54?>;0305B >1I5=85 &laquo;?>4>1=KE 4@C3 4@C3C ;N459&raquo;. ?@>G5<, =5B 65;0=8O >1I0BLAO A =>@<0;L=K< G5;>25:>< 8 C =e;N459, >=8 53> 2>A?@8=8<0NB ?>-A2>5<C - B0: 1K;> 704C<0=> ?@8@>4>9. >MB><C =>@<0;L=K9 G5;>25: ;81> ?>:8405B >1I=>ABL =e;N459 (2?;>BL 4> M<83@0F88), ;81> >=8 53> 876820NB ;N1K< 8=K< A?>A>1>< 2?;>BL 4> C189AB20, C=8GB>65=8O. /2;5=8O &laquo;454>2I8=K&raquo; A;C60B ?@8<5@>< 8<5==> B0:>3> @>40 A;CG052. <dd>@8ACBAB285 2 >1I5AB25 4065 =57=0G8B5;L=>3> G8A;0 =5@0A?>7=0==KE <i>=5;N459 </i>87-70 =5C<5=8O 8E @0A?>7=020BL, ?@028;L=> :20;8D8F8@>20BL 8 >1572@56820BL (87>;8@>20BL, 4570:B828@>20BL) 5IQ 1>;55 CA;>6=O5B 687=L 2 =0H5 2@5<O - M?>EC A>2@5<5==KE B5E=>35==KE ?@>872>4AB2 8 @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O 2 <8@5 >@C68O <0AA>2>3> ?>@065=8O. <dd>"5?5@L ;8HL >48= <i>?@>872>4AB25==8:-=5;N4L</i>, A;82 2 @5:C >B@02;ONI85 >BE>4K, <>65B >B@028BL F5;K9 3>@>4 =>@<0;L=KE ;N459. 48= <i>B5@@>@8AB-=5;N4L</i> (C65 =5 3>2>@O >1 >@30=870F88 <i>=5;N459</i>), 702;0452 ;N1K< >@C685< <0AA>2>3> ?>@065=8O (E8<8G5A:8<, 10:B5@8>;>38G5A:8<, 0B><=K<) 8, CAB@>82 <0AA>2>5 70@065=85, 27@K2, <>65B C=8GB>68BL <8;;8>=K G5;>25: =>@<0;L=>3> =0A5;5=8O, 0, ?@>=8:=C2 2 3>AC40@AB25==CN A8AB5<C C?@02;5=8O, ?CBQ< ?@8A2>5=8O 8;8 @0A?K;5=8O :@C?=KE D8=0=A>2KE A@54AB2, CAB@>82 45D>;B 8;8 @0AAB@>82 M:>=><8:C, 8E >1574>;8BL. <dd>>340 G8A;> <i>=5;N459</i> 2 >1I5AB25 ?@52KH05B 4>?CAB8<K5 =>@<K, MB> AB0=>28BAO >?0A=K< 4;O 2A53> 40==>3> A>F8C<0, 5A;8 65 :@8B8G5A:89 @C156 ?> 4>;5 <i>=5;N459</i> 1C45B ?@527>94Q= G5;>25G5AB2>< 2 F5;><, B> 53> =5<8=C5<> >68405B 3;>10;L=0O :0B0AB@>D0 A0<>C=8GB>65=8O, ?>B5@O A2>53> ##). <dd>>MB><C <i>=5;N4L-8725@3</i> - MB> B>B, :B> 70A;C68205B 1KBL 8725@65==K< 87 >1I5AB20.  MB>9 A2O78 @0A?>7=020=85 8 >1572@56820=85 AB0BCA=KE <i>=5;N459</i> AB0=>28BAO =5 ?@>AB> =@02AB25==K< 8<?5@0B82>< 2A5E =>@<0;L=KE ;N459, =0G8=0O A A51O, 8E >1=0@C65=85, >?@545;5=85 AB5?5=8 8E >?0A=>AB8, 2K1>@ B>3> 8;8 8=>3> 2840 4570:B820F88 8 87>;OF88 4;O =8E 8 ?>?KB:0 :>@@5:F88 8E A>7=0=8O 2 AB>@>=C =>>AD5@=>AB8 AB0=>28BAO =08206=59H59 3>AC40@AB25==>9 7040G59 4;O =0@>4>2 8 ?@028B5;LAB2 2A5E AB@0= <8@0, 4;O 2A5E <564C=0@>4=KE 8=AB8BCB>2 @53C;8@>20=8O 3;>10;L=>3> G5;>25G5A:>3> >1I568B8O. "0:, B5@@>@87<, :>B>@K9 27OB =0 2>>@C65=85 =5;N4L<8, 402=> AB0; <564C=0@>4=K<, 3;>10;L=K<, => 0:B82=0O 1>@L10 A =8< =0G0;0AL ;8HL B>340, :>340 >= AB0; 70B@03820BL 8=B5@5AK ?@5B5=4CNI8E =0 3;>10;L=>5 ;845@AB2> AB@0= <8@0. </p> <p> <dd>>;55 A;>6=> @0A?>7=0BL 8 :20;8D8F8@>20BL :0: <i>=5;N459</i> B5E 8=48284>2, :B> 8<55B ;53:85 H87>D@5=8G5A:85 >B:;>=5=8O, ?>A:>;L:C 2 ?5@8>4K 70B8HLO 1>;57=8 - >=8 ?>4>1=K =>@<0;L=K< ;N4O<, 8 ;8HL 2 ?5@8>4K >1>AB@5=8O 8;8 2 AB@5AA>2>9 A8BC0F88 8E <i>A>7=0=85</i> @57:> ?>;O@87C5BAO 8 >=8 >1=0@C6820NB 2A5 ?@87=0:8 <i>=e;N459</i>. >B ?>G5<C 2 M=F8:;>?548G5A:8E A;>20@OE 1>;L=KE H87>D@5=859 E0@0:B5@87CNB :0: ;N459 A <5=ONI59AO <i>;8G=>ABLN</i>. <i>8G=>ABL</i> C =8E, :>=5G=>, =5 <5=O5BAO, 0 ?>4 402;5=85< >1AB>OB5;LAB2 =0ABC?0NB ?5@8>4K >1>AB@5=8O 2 @57:>9 D>@<5 >B@8F0B5;L=KE ?>4A>7=0=89 A 8E ?>@>G=K<8 8 1@54>2K<8 $& 8 -?0@078B0<8, 5AB5AB25==> ?>402;O5<K5 2 ?5@8>4K =>@<0;L=>3> ?>2545=8O 8=482840 53> D=. F5=B@0<8 A0<>:>=B@>;O. <dd>-B0 ?>;O@=0O <b>>1>@>B=>ABL</b>, 8;8 A<5==>ABL, 45;0NI0O 2@>45 1K =>@<0;L=>3> G5;>25:0 <i>>1>@>B=5<</i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dd># AB018;L=KE <i>=e;N459</i> 8 @0AAC4>G=K5 AC645=8O, 8 A0<> ?>2545=85, :0: 1KB>2>5, B0: 8 A>F80;L=>5, =5 3>2>@O C65 > 3@0640=A:><, A25BA:><, 8<5NB, :0: ?@028;>, AB018;L=K5 >B:;>=5=8O >B =>@<K, 8 =0 D>=5 ?>2A54=52=>3> ?@>O2;5=8O 2 8E ?>2545=88 2 :0G5AB25 4><8=0=BK >B@8F0B5;L=KE, 45AB@C:B82=KE =530?>4A>7=0=89 ?@>4C:B82=K5 ?@0:B8G5A:8 =5 =01;N40NBAO. ! 2>7@0AB><, >4=0:>, >B@8F0B5;L=K5 ?>4A>7=0=8O <>3CB 4><8=8@>20BL 2AQ 2 1>;LH59 AB5?5=8 ;81>, =0?@>B82, 70BCE0BL 2 A8;C 2;8O=8O =0 =8E B5E 8;8 8=KE 687=5==KE >1AB>OB5;LAB2. <dd>@5;>ABL =>@<0;L=>3> 8=48284C0;L=>3> A>7=0=8O 87<5@O5BAO >A>7=0=85< G5;>25:>< <i>A<KA;0</i> A2>59 687=8, A2>53> >1I5AB25==>3> ?@54=07=0G5=8O. !>3;0A=> >1I5?@8=OB>9 MB8<>;>388 MB>3> A;>20, ?>=OB85 &laquo;G5;>25:&raquo; >7=0G05B &laquo;F5;5?>;030NI89&raquo;. <i>&5;5?>;030=85</i> O2;O5BAO 53> 3;02=>9 DC=:F859, 8 687=L 157 F5;8, 157 A<KA;0 ;8H05B <i>G5;>25:0</i> MB>3> 720=8O. <5AB5 A B5<, 8AE>4O 87 B>3>, GB> <i>A<KA;>< </i>687=8 :064>3> >B45;L=>3> 8=482840 A;54C5B AG8B0BL >A<KA;5==>5 AB@5<;5=85 : A>25@H5=AB2C G5@57 ?>78B82=>5 30@<>=8G=>5 @0728B85, AB0=>2OI55AO @07C<=>9 <i>F5;LN </i>53> 687=8, B> 2?>;=5 5AB5AB25==> ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> C:070==>5 ?>78B82=>5 @0728B85 >B=>A8BAO :0: : 35=>B8?C, B0: 8 D5=>B8?C 40==>3> G5;>25:0. > GB>1K @57C;LB0BK 53> 4>AB865=89 =5 >:070;8AL CB@0G5==K<8, 8E A;54C5B 70D8:A8@>20BL =0 1C4CI55, GB> >= 8 45;05B, ?5@54020O A2>9 4>@01>B0==K9 35=>B8? A2>5<C ?>B><AB2C (C;CGH0O B5< A0<K< >1I5AB25==K9 35=>D>=4), 0 ?>;CG5==K5 8< =>2K5 7=0=8O >B@060O 2 :=830E, ?@>872545=8OE :C;LBC@K, CG51=8:0E, 4@C38E A@54AB20E 8 D>@<0E ?>445@60=8O 8 @0728B8O D5=>D>=40 =>>AD5@K. <dd> A8;C MB>3> ?>7=0=85 G5;>25G5A:>3> <5=B0;8B5B0, => ?@5645 2A53> CA2>5=85 >A>15==>AB59 G5;>25G5A:>3> 8=48284C0;L=>3> 8 >1I5AB25==>3> A>7=0=8O, 0 B0:65 A<KA;0 8 F5;5A>>1@07=>AB8 G5;>25G5A:>9 687=8 A<>65B 40BL >1I5AB2C ;N459 2>7<>6=>ABL ?>=OBL 8 =0?@02;OBL =5 B>;L:> E>4 A2>53> 8=48284C0;L=>3> 8 >1I5AB25==>3> @0728B8O B0:, GB>1K >=> A>2?040;> A =0?@02;5=85< @0728B8O ?@8@>4K (<0B5@88) 8 >1J5:B82=K<8 157CA;>2=K<8 70:>=0<8 5Q ACI5AB2>20=8O, => 8 >ACI5AB2;OBL ?>AB>O==CN :>@@5:F8N A2>8E 459AB289, A2>53> <b><i>:064>4=52=>3> ?>2545=8O</i></b> =0 ?@>BO65=88 2A53> A2>53> 687=5==>3> 1KB8O. <dd>$>@<C;8@CO A CGQB>< 2A53> 2KH587;>65==>3> >:>=G0B5;L=>5 ?>=OB85 <i>A<KA;0 687=8</i>, 0 7=0G8B, 8 2KAH59 <i>F5;8 ?>2545=8O</i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dd>@C38<8 A;>20<8, 687=L 40QBAO G5;>25:C 2A53> ;8HL >48= @07 8 ?@>68BL 5Q =04> B0:, GB>1K =5 1K;> <CG8B5;L=> 1>;L=> 70 15AF5;L=> ?@>68BK5 3>4K, GB>1K =5 6Q3 ?>7>@ <5;>G=KE >184 70 =8:GQ<=> @0AB@0G5==>5 ?@>H;>5, GB>1K, C<8@0O, <>3 A 4>AB>8=AB2>< A:070BL >:@C682H8< 53> 1;87:8< ;N4O<, GB> ?@>68; >= =5 7@O, GB> 687=L 53> 1K;0 ?>;=>F5==>9 8 8<5;0 =0?>;=5==K9 8 >A>7=0==K9 4> :>=F0 A<KA;, GB> >= A G5ABLN 2K?>;=8; ?@54>?@545;Q==>5 AC4L1>9 >1I5AB25==>5 ?@54=07=0G5=85. <dd>8BL 157 A<KA;0, 157 OA=> >G5@G5==KE F5;59 - 2AQ @02=> GB> C?>4>1;OBLAO 1>;L=><C A 2O;>B5:CI59 D>@<>9 H87>D@5=88, @0ABO=CB>9 =0 25AL ?5@8>4 1@5==>3> ACI5AB2>20=8O 40==>3> 8=482840, GB> G0AB> ?@52@0I05B 53> ?>2545=85 ?@>AB> 2 A:>BA:>5 ACI5AB2>20=85. 0?@>B82, >A>7=0=85 A<KA;0 A2>59 687=8, AB@5<;5=85 : ?>AB>O==><C A>25@H5=AB2C 8 4>AB865=8N =0<5G5==KE F5;59, 48:BC5<KE ?>;>68B5;L=K<8 ?>4A>7=0=8O<8 <i>A>7=0=8O</i>, =0?>;=O5B 687=L G5;>25:0 3;C1>:8< A>45@60=85<, 0 53> ?>2545=85 - 1;03>@>4=K<8 ?>ABC?:0<8, 45;0NI8< 53> 4>AB>9=K< =@02AB25==>-AB0BCA=>3> 720=8O <i>=0AB>OI53> G5;>25:0</i><b><i> @07C<=>3></i></b> - Homo sapiens sapiens. </p> </blockquote><center> <p><img src="../../images/bar62.gif" height="11" width="609" border="0"></p> <p><font size="3">[ <a href="index.htm">0 3;02=CN AB@0=8FC</a> ] [ <a href="09.htm">"5<0 9</a> ]</font></p> </center></body></html>